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How to Choose the Best Hemp CBD Oil

Isolate, Pure Pure molecular under laboratory CBD separated ensu conditions, weight Spectrum’s by is



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  • Pure CBD reduced cell proliferation in a CB1-sensitive antagonist manner only. .. seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. .. four cannabis types, and supported a separation of marijuana and hemp. . Twelve sera recognized at least 6 different bands in a molecular-weight . Molecular cytogenetic analysis of monoecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars .. Agroclimatic conditions do not influence THC and CBD contents in industrial hemp A hemp seed protein isolate, prepared from defatted hemp seed meals by .. four cannabis types, and supported a separation of marijuana and hemp. Arno Hazekamp with expertise in: Phytochemistry. in children, CBD is now sold and used to treat a wide range of medical conditions and lifestyle diseases. to get a deeper understanding of cannabis effects in laboratory and clinical studies. All isolates were shown to be more than 90% pure by gas chromatography.

    Isolate, Pure Pure molecular under laboratory CBD separated ensu conditions, weight Spectrum’s by is

    The genomes from the two C. The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on light interception and dry matter yield in hemp Cannabis sativa L. Full Text Available The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on canopy light interception and on flowering was investigated in hemp Cannabis sativa L.

    Rate of canopy development increased with increasing plant density and nitrogen fertilizer in both sites. At Shirvan, rate of canopy development was slower.

    Nitrogen fertilizer in a similar way as plant density increased light interception. In both sites, the flowering date was later with increasing plant density. Morphological characteristics at both sites were highly correlated with plant sexual, plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. Above ground dry matter increased at both sites with increasing plant density and. To determine the medicinal part and varieties of Cannabis Sativa through herbal textual research to Provide bibliographic reference for clinical application.

    Herbal textual research of C. Sativa from ancient herbal works and modern data analysis. Through the herbal textual research, the plant of the C. People did not make a sharp distinction on medicinal part of C. Since Taohongjing realized the toxicity ofpericarp, all the herbal and prescription works indicate that the pericarp shall be removed before usage and only the kernel can be used.

    However, in modem literatures, both fruit and kernel can be used as medicinal part. The plants for Fructus Cannabis described in modern and ancient literatures are identical.

    The base of the original plant is the same either in ancient or modern. And the toxicity of the fruit is more than that of the kernel. The kernel is the exact medicinal part of C. In Vitro Propagation of Cannabis sativa L. Marijuana; Cannabaceae , one of the oldest medicinal plants in the world, has been used throughout history for fiber, food, as well as for its psychoactive properties. The dioecious and allogamous nature of C. Therefore, the present optimized in vitro propagation protocol of the selected elite germplasm via direct organogenesis and quality assurance protocols using genetic and chemical profiling provide an ideal pathway for ensuring the efficacy of micropropagated Cannabis sativa germplasm.

    A high frequency shoot organogenesis of C. In silico gene expression profiling in Cannabis sativa. The cannabis plant and its active ingredients i. Luckily, with more than , published scientific papers and about ongoing and completed clinical trials, nowadays cannabis is employed for the treatment of many different medical conditions. Nevertheless, even if a large amount of high-throughput functional genomic data exists, most researchers feature a strong background in molecular biology but lack advanced bioinformatics skills.

    In this work, publicly available gene expression datasets have been analyzed giving rise to a total of 40, gene expression profiles taken from cannabis plant tissue at different developmental stages. The resource presented here will provide researchers with a starting point for future investigations with Cannabis sativa.

    Ability of phytoremediation for absorption of strontium and cesium from soils using Cannabis sativa. Our findings suggest that strontium can be absorbed by Cannabis sativa , with the highest absorption by the roots, stems, and leaves. However, cesium does not reach the plant because of its single capacity and inactive complex formation.

    Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L. In order to develop cannabis plant material as a medicinal product quality control and clear chemotaxonomic discrimination between varieties is a necessity.

    Therefore in this study 11 cannabis varieties were grown under the same environmental conditions. Chemical analysis of cannabis plant material used a gas chromatography flame ionization detection method that was validated for quantitative analysis of cannabis monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and cannabinoids. Quantitative data was analyzed using principal component analysis to determine which compounds are most important in discriminating cannabis varieties.

    In total 36 compounds were identified and quantified in the 11 varieties. Using principal component analysis each cannabis variety could be chemically discriminated. This methodology is useful for both chemotaxonomic discrimination of cannabis varieties and quality control of plant material. MS conditions were optimized by means. Phytomeliorative properties of Cannabis sativa L. Full Text Available Purpose. Field and spectrometric methods were basic. The results were processed using conventional methods in agriculture, crop growing and statistics.

    Variants of the experiment were as follows: Schemes of experiments included: The amount of the accumulation of alkaline earth metals and their compounds by seeds and stalks of hemp plants depending on their content in vegetation soils was determined.

    The degree of influence of the variety, feeding area and the maturity stage on the processes of magnesium compounds Mg accumulation by plants was not revealed.

    Cannabis smoke condensate III: Cannabis sativa is a well-known recreational drug and, as such, a controlled substance of which possession and use are illegal in most countries of the world.

    Due to the legal constraints on the possession and use of C. Interest in the medicinal uses of this plant has, however, increased in the last decades. The methods of administration for medicinal purposes are mainly through oral ingestion, smoking, and nowadays also inhalation through vaporization. During this study the commercially available Volcano vaporizing device was compared with cannabis cigarette smoke.

    The cannabis smoke and vapor obtained at different temperatures were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC. In addition, different quantities of cannabis material were also tested with the vaporizer. The worst ratio of cannabinoids: In silico discovery of terpenoid metabolism in Cannabis sativa. Due to their efficacy, cannabis based therapies are currently being prescribed for the treatment of many different medical conditions.

    Interestingly, treatments based on the use of cannabis flowers or their derivatives have been shown to be very effective, while therapies based on drugs containing THC alone lack therapeutic value and lead to increased side effects, likely resulting from the absence of other pivotal entourage compounds found in the Phyto-complex.

    Among these compounds are terpenoids, which are not produced exclusively by cannabis plants , so other plant species must share many of the enzymes involved in their metabolism. In the present work, 23, transcripts from the canSat3 reference transcriptome were scanned for evolutionarily conserved protein domains and annotated in accordance with their predicted molecular functions. A total of evolutionarily conserved genes encoding enzymes presumably involved in terpenoid metabolism are described, together with their expression profiles in different cannabis plant tissues at different developmental stages.

    The resource presented here will aid future investigations on terpenoid metabolism in Cannabis sativa. New food allergies in a European non-Mediterranean region: Allergy to fruit and vegetables exhibit geographic variation regarding the severity of symptoms and depending on the sensitization profile of the patient. These sensitization profiles and routes remain incompletely understood.

    Cannabis is a very popular drug and derived from Cannabis sativa , a plant containing lipid transfer proteins LTP also known as important allergens in plant and fruit allergies. In this study we sought to elucidate a potential connection between C. A case-control study involving 21 patients consulting for plant food allergies. Twelve patients were cannabis allergic and 9 had a pollen or latex allergy without cannabis allergy.

    Testing for cannabis IgE implied measurement of specific IgE, skin testing and basophil activation tests. Allergen component analysis was performed with a microarray technique. Plant food allergy in patients with documented cannabis allergy had more severe reactions than patients without cannabis allergy and frequently implied fruits and vegetables that are not observed in a birch pollen-related food syndrome.

    With the exception of 1 patient with cannabis allergy, all were sensitized to nonspecific ns -LTP. Our data suggest that illicit cannabis abuse can result in cannabis allergy with sensitization to ns-LTP. This sensitization might result in various plant -food allergies.

    Additional collaborative studies in different geographical areas are needed to further elucidate on this hypothesis. Illegal cannabis Cannabis sativa L.

    Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources Tsukuba Division received between January 1, and March 31, were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: Top three inquiries were 1: Characteristics of cannabis , namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf Hibiscus cannabinus L.

    The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa. Cannabis sativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production.

    The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. We report a draft haploid genome sequence of Mb and a transcriptome of 30, genes. Comparison of the transcriptome of Purple Kush with that of the hemp cultivar 'Finola' revealed that many genes encoding proteins involved in cannabinoid and precursor pathways are more highly expressed in Purple Kush than in 'Finola'.

    Resequencing the hemp cultivars 'Finola' and 'USO' showed little difference in gene copy numbers of cannabinoid pathway enzymes. However, single nucleotide variant analysis uncovered a relatively high level of variation among four cannabis types, and supported a separation of marijuana and hemp.

    The availability of the Cannabis sativa genome enables the study of a multifunctional plant that occupies a unique role in human culture. Its availability will aid the development of therapeutic marijuana strains with tailored cannabinoid profiles and provide a basis for the breeding of hemp with improved agronomic characteristics.

    How to store plant tissues in the absence of liquid nitrogen? Ethanol preserves the RNA integrity of Cannabis sativa stem tissues. Full Text Available The preservation of intact RNA is a limiting step when gene expression profiling is performed using field-collected plant material.

    The use of liquid nitrogen ensures the optimal preservation of RNA, however it is not always practical, especially if the plant material has to be sampled in remote locations. Ethanol is known to preserve DNA in plant tissues even after a long storage period and here its suitability to preserve the RNA of textile hemp cortical tissues was tested.

    We show that in all the cases the extracted RNA is intact. We finally analyze hemp stem tissues stored in ethanol for 1 month and demonstrate the preservation of the tissue structure, particularly of bast fibres. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug. Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa cannabis component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers.

    These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol CBD, a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs.

    The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia.

    Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated. Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's Cannabis sativa L. Arsenic As , cadmium Cd , lead Pb and titanium Ti presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima DV.

    Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content.

    Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia. Proteomic characterization of hempseed Cannabis sativa L. This paper presents an investigation on hempseed proteome. This very large number of identifications was achieved by searching in two databases: By performing a protein-protein association network analysis using the STRING software, it was possible to build the first interactomic map of all detected proteins, characterized by nodes and interactions.

    Finally, a Gene Ontology analysis of the identified species permitted to classify their molecular functions: Hempseed is an underexploited non-legume protein-rich seed. Although its protein is well known for its digestibility, essential amino acid composition, and useful techno-functional properties, a comprehensive proteome characterization is still lacking.

    The objective of this work was to fill this knowledge gap and provide information useful for a better exploitation of this seed in different food products. Neither absolute THC content nor morphology allows the unequivocal discrimination of fiber cultivars and drug strains of Cannabis sativa L.

    Using PCR-based markers in two segregating populations, we proved that the THCA synthase gene represents the postulated B locus and that specific sequence polymorphisms are absolutely linked either to the THC-predominant or the THC-intermediate chemotype. The absolute linkage provides an excellent reliability of the marker signal in forensic casework. For validation, the species-specific marker system was applied to a large number of casework samples and fiber hemp cultivars.

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant 's natural products.

    Polyketide synthases PKSs are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

    Discriminating the effects of Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica: To evaluate the opinions of medical cannabis MC users on the effects of Cannabis indica vs. Survey of 95 non-randomly assigned MC users. A two-sided chi-square test followed by Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparison and Fisher exact test were used to determine correlations.

    Announcements on 13 MC websites with links to SurveyMonkey. Species effects were compared regarding health symptoms, conditions, purpose, route, and trust in product label. Trust in the purity, the route of administration, or the purpose recreational vs.

    A preference for C. The MC websites' descriptions of effects that agreed with the survey results are listed. Some conditions had very few respondents. In this anonymous Web survey, which had limitations, the two species had different effect associations on symptoms and conditions, possibly because of ingredient differences.

    Future surveys and subsequent prospective definitive trials are needed to confirm the findings. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp Cannabis sativa. EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: Crop physiology of fibre hemp Cannabis sativa L. Fibre hemp Cannabis sativa L. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the.

    New developments in fiber hemp Cannabis sativa L. Fiber hemp Cannabis sativa L. Currently the main hemp producing regions in. Agronomy and photosynthesis physiology of hemp Cannabis sativa L. However, there is a lack of field experimental data on the cultivation of hemp because its production was largely abandoned in the last century. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America.

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material C. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay.

    Based on this information, two of the three major C. Bioactive spirans and other constituents from the leaves of Cannabis sativa f. In this paper, 17 compounds were isolated from the leaves of Hemp Cannabis sativa f. Among the isolates, two were determined to be new spirans: The known compounds 7, 8, 10, 13, 15, and 16 were isolated from Hemp C.

    Furthermore, compounds 8 and 13 were isolated from the nature for the first time. All isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity on different tissue-derived passage cancer cell lines through cell viability and apoptosis assay. Among these compounds, compounds 5, 9 and 16 exhibited a broad-spectrum antitumor effect via inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. These results obtained have provided valuable clues to the understanding of the cytotoxic profile for these isolated compounds from Hemp C.

    Levels of selected metals in leaves of Cannabis sativa L. Cannabis products are the most widely trafficked drugs worldwide. The highest levels of cannabis production in the world take place in the African continent. A small volume of cannabis is produced in rural areas of Ethiopia, of which a small portion is exported to neighboring countries and the majority is consumed at home. The literature survey revealed that there is no report on the metal contents in cannabis cultivated in Ethiopia.

    The main objective of this study is to determine the level of selected metals in leaves of Cannabis sativa L. After proper sample pretreatment, the volumes of reagents used, digestion temperature and digestion time were optimized and using the optimized conditions the levels of metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Zn was with the highest concentration among trace metals. The results indicate that the content of Pb and Cd exceeds the permissible amount for medicinal plants which form the raw materials for the finished products set by World Health Organization WHO.

    Toxic effects of palpoluck Polygonum hydropepper L. Full Text Available A research project was carried out aimed at to study the toxic effects of Palpoluck Polygonum hydropipper L. Results revealed that after ten days of feeding maximum percent mortality in case of Polygonum hydropipper L.

    Similarly, for the same species of termites the percent mortality in Cannabis sativa L. In each extract mortality was significantly different from that of control. Toxic effects of both extracts leaf and flower were more profound against Coptotermes heimi than Heterotermes indicola during these ten days of feeding.

    Also the seed extracts caused more mortality than the leaves for both species, suggesting the availability of high contents of toxic materials in seed. Molecular characterization of edestin gene family in Cannabis sativa L. Globulins are the predominant class of seed storage proteins in a wide variety of plants.

    In many plant species globulins are present in several isoforms encoded by gene families. The major seed storage protein of Cannabis sativa L. In this work, we report the isolation of seven cDNAs encoding for edestin from the C. Southern blot hybridization is in agreement with the number of identified edestin genes.

    The amino acid composition determined in CsEde1 and CsEde2 types suggests that these seed proteins can be used to improve the nutritional quality of plant food-stuffs. Medical uses of marijuana Cannabis sativa: Marijuana Cannabis sativa has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally and spiritually for thousands of years. In South Africa, from the midth century to the s, practitioners prescribed it for a multitude of conditions.

    In it was classified as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban.

    Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating. Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young. Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction.

    This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both. Proline and phenolices were correlated with Cd contents in plant. Cd significantly reduced the plant growth. Fertilizers application in combination most significantly increased the growth 19 cm root and 47 cm shoot on Cd contaminated soil.

    All treatments increased the Cd contents in plant tissues. This increase was highly significant in fertilizers treated plants , and ppm in roots, stem and leaves respectively. All treatments significantly increased the proline and total phenolics and maximum was recorded in NaCl treated plants followed by fertilizers.

    Proline was higher in roots while phenolics in leaves. Proline and phenolics showed positive correlation with Cd concentration in plant. Conclusively, fertilizers in combination seem to be the better option for Cd phytoextraction. Further investigation is suggested to study the role of phenolics and proline in Cd phytoextraction.

    In many parts of the world, the possession and cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. As chemical or morphological analyses cannot identify the plant in some cases, a simple yet accurate DNA-based method for identifying C.

    We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification LAMP assay for the rapid identification of C. The detection limit was the same as or higher than that of conventional PCR.

    Using a simple protocol, the identification of C. A rapid, sensitive, highly specific, and convenient method for detecting and identifying C. Sensitization and allergy to Cannabis sativa leaves in a population of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum -sensitized patients. Cases of allergy to Cannabis sativa have occasionally been reported, but both the allergenic profile and eventual cross-reactivity pattern remain unknown.

    To analyze the allergenic profile of a population of patients from Spain sensitized to C. A total of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study: Sensitivity to Cannabis , tomato and peach peel, Platanus hybrida and Artemisia vulgaris pollen extracts was measured by skin tests and specific IgE.

    Individual immunoblots and inhibition experiments with a pool of sera were conducted. All tomato-sensitized subjects and 1 negative had positive skin tests to C.

    Specific IgE to C. Immunoblot experiments showed 2 prominent bands of 10 and 14 kDa and 2 weakly recognized bands of 30 and 45 kDa. Tomato, peach and A. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid THCA in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid CBDA in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping.

    Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content.

    Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency. Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol THC content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels.

    We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds.

    DNA extracted from embryos was used for SSR molecular characterization in individuals from the 10 varieties. A unique molecular profile for each individual was obtained, and a clear differentiation between hemp and marijuana varieties was observed. The combined embryo extraction-DNA extraction methodology and the new highly polymorphic SSR markers facilitate genetic and forensic studies in Cannabis.

    Two complete chloroplast genome sequences of Cannabis sativa varieties. In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast cp genomes from two varieties of Cannabis sativa. Further, except for the presence of an intron in the rps3 genes of two C. To verify the position of C. The resulting tree strongly supported monophyly of Rosales. Further, the family Cannabaceae, represented by C. The phylogenetic relationship outlined in our study is well congruent with those previously shown for the order Rosales.

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cannabis sativa is a plant that is Called Cannabis in Persian and has diversity all over the world. This plant grows in North region, Arak and Kashan in Iran.

    Chemical compounds of this plant are cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid and tetra hydro cannabinol that cause the increase in duration of anesthesia via injection of anesthesia drugs. This effect shows the effectiveness of this plant extraction for sedation and smoothing.

    It is claimed that the usage of this drug for preanesthesia causes the reduction of anesthesia duration induction and increases anesthesia persistency. It seems that Cannabis and its compounds have effects on sleep through hypothalamus and posterior nucleus hemisphere.

    The results showed a meaningful increase in the period of the sleep time that had been induced with Ketamine and also a meaningful increase was observed in the time spent at open arms in the treatment groups with high and low dose of extract.

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse not only in Pakistan but also in the whole world. Its use is increasing drastically every year. GCMS allows for the analysis of Cannabis sativa which shows the differences of the constituents of this plant. Prevalence of this plant can be identified through knowledge of its constituents. In this way we can obstruct the production if we know the region in which it is produced. GCMS is a useful technique for the comparison of constituents of this drug of abuse which will assist the investigator concerning the origin of plant.

    Comparison also aids in the understanding and acquaintance of similarities of different samples of cannabinoids. Nutraceutical potential of hemp Cannabis sativa L. In this study the antioxidant effect of Cannabis sativa L. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content, when expressed on dry weight basis, were highest in sprouts; ORAC and DPPH in vitro assays , CAA-RBC cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells and hemolysis test ex vivo assays evidenced a good antioxidant activity higher in sprouts than in seeds.

    Antimutagenic effect of seeds and sprouts extracts evidenced a significant decrease of mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. In conclusion our results show that C. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Identification of Cannabis sativa L. This study reports a successful application of fluorescence in situ hybridization FISH technique in the identification of Cannabis sativa L. Specificity of probe-target hybridization was tested against the target and 4 non-target plant species, i.

    Probe-target hybridization was also confirmed against 20 individual Cannabis plant samples. It was also showed that 1-kb THCA synthase FISH probe can be applied to identify small amount of dried powdered Cannabis material with an addition of rehydration step prior to the experimental process. This study provided an alternative identification method for Cannabis trace. Published by Elsevier B.

    Most narcotics-related cases in the United States involve Cannabis sativa. Material is typically identified based on the cystolithic hairs on the leaves and with chemical tests to identify of the presence of cannabinoids. Suspect seeds are germinated into a viable plant so that morphological and chemical tests can be conducted. Seed germination, however, causes undue analytical delays. DNA analyses that involve the chloroplast and nuclear genomes have been developed for identification of C.

    Using the trnL 3' exon-trnF intragenic spacer regions within the C. This assay provides forensic science laboratories with a quick and reliable method to identify an unknown sample as C. Because of limitation in cultivation of this plant , an efficient hairy root induction system for Cannabis sativa L. Molecular analysis of transformed root lines was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers of the rolB gene. The transformation frequency by Murashige and Skoog co-cultivation medium resulting in hairy root induction frequencies of This study established a reliable protocol for induction of hairy roots of C.

    Metals and organic compounds in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids: Illicit production and trade of Cannabis sativa affect many societies. This drug is the most popular and easy to produce. Important information for the authorities is the production locality and the indicators of a particular production. This work is an attempt to recognise correlations between the metal content in the different parts of C.

    In this study, numerous correlations between metal content in plants and soil, already confirmed in previous publications, were analysed applying chemometric unsupervised methods, that is, principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis, in order to highlight their role in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids.

    Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects. Cannabidiol CBD , another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C.

    The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol 4. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability.

    Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope. Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

    Cannabis Cannabis sativa L. At the University of Mississippi, different strains of C. A GC-FID method has been developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of acid and neutral cannabinoids in C. The method involves trimethyl silyl derivatization of the extracts. The limit of detection range was 0. The developed method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and suitable for the detection and quantitation of acidic and neutral cannabinoids in different extracts of cannabis varieties.

    The method was applied to the analysis of these cannabinoids in different parts of the micropropagated cannabis plants buds, leaves, roots, and stems. Prevalence of sensitization to Cannabis sativa. Lipid-transfer and thaumatin-like proteins are relevant allergens. Although allergy to Cannabis sativa was first reported over 40 years ago, the allergenicity has scarcely been studied.

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of sensitization to this plant , to analyze the clinical characteristics and allergenic profile of sensitized individuals and to identify the allergens involved. Five hundred and forty-five individuals in Spain attending allergy clinics with respiratory or cutaneous symptoms underwent a skin-prick test SPT with C.

    Of this preselected population, 44 individuals had positive SPT to C. Prevalence was higher in individuals who were C. Two individuals reported mild symptoms with C. Twenty-one individuals from 32 available sera Twelve sera recognized at least 6 different bands in a molecular-weight range of between 10 and 60 kDa. Six of them recognized a kDa band, identified as a lipid transfer protein LTP and 8 recognized a kDa band, identified as a thaumatin-like protein.

    There is a high prevalence of sensitization to C. The clinical symptoms directly attributed to C. The sensitization profile observed suggests that C. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cannabis Sativa on appetite hormone in rat. Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide which is secreted from stomach.

    Cannabis sativa is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is published about its effect on energy intake and its mechanism. In the current study, the possible effect of hydroalcoholic extract of C. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Two control groups were selected, the first group received 0. Total ghrelin levels in plasma were measured for 3 h post-gavage.

    There was no significant difference in energy intake between control and vehicle groups. This study showed that C. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant in human. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the dioecious Cannabis sativa with an XY chromosome sex determination system.

    The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair XX in female and XY in male plants. The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes. The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CScarrying arm.

    Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C. Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron.

    Induction of mutants in Cannabis Sativa L. A description is given of the mutations induced in a well known cultivar of fibre hemp belonging to the species Cannabis sativa in order to obtain new phenotypic characters that could unequivocally differentiate it from drug hemp.

    These new cultivars, named red petiole exhibiting anthocyanin leaf petioles and yellow apex exhibiting yellow distal leaflets , have been compared with varieties C. These agronomical trials highlighted the good performance of both new cultivars as for yield in dry matter and in fibre, not significantly different from the results of carmagnola. Besides, the new cultivars showed THC contents 0.

    Minor oxygenated cannabinoids from high potency Cannabis sativa L. Nine oxygenated cannabinoids were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L.

    Diversity analysis in Cannabis sativa based on large-scale development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers. However, lack of sufficient simple sequence repeat SSR markers has limited the development of cannabis genetic research. Here, large-scale development of expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat EST-SSR markers was performed to obtain more informative genetic markers, and to assess genetic diversity in cannabis Cannabis sativa L.

    From there, a total of 3, complementary primer pairs were designed as SSR markers. Among these markers, trinucleotide repeat motifs Among these markers, Forty-five polymorphic primer pairs were selected to evaluate genetic diversity and relatedness among the cannabis genotypes. The results showed that varieties could be divided into 4 groups primarily based on geography: Moreover, the coefficient of similarity when comparing cannabis from Northern China with the European group cannabis was higher than that when comparing with cannabis from the other two groups, owing to a similar climate.

    This study outlines the first large-scale development of SSR markers for cannabis. These data may serve as a foundation for the development of genetic linkage, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted breeding of cannabis. In silico discovery of terpenoid metabolism in Cannabis sativa [version 1; referees: Full Text Available Due to their efficacy, cannabis based therapies are currently being prescribed for the treatment of many different medical conditions.

    This recommendation of the Italian National Toxicological Committee CCTN regards the possible toxic effects of some products derived from Cannabis sativa , indica variety. The CCTN has especially evaluated genotoxic, immunological and toxic to reproduction effects of these substances, on the basis of the results from both experimental studies and observations on humans. The effect of tetraploidy induction on morphology and anatomy characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.

    Flow cytometry analyses were used to confirm the ploidy level. Morphologic and anatomic characteristics between tetraploid and diploid control plants were compared. The results showed that 0. The percentage of tetraploid plants and the survival rate were lowered by increasing the treatment time.

    In addition, the leaf index and height of tetraploid plants exhibited a significant decrease compared to the diploid plants. The size of leaves' epidermis stomata were larger in tetraploid plant compared to the diploid ones, in spite of their less density of stomata.

    However, the amount of total chlorophyll and carotenoids were almost the same in both of tetraploid and diploid plants. In addition, some differences were also observed in the cross section of stem of these plants from the descriptive structure point of view. On the whole, the results introduced usage of the stomata parameters as an effective and convenient method for detecting the tetraploid plants however, the flow cytometry analysis was more effective in assessing the ploidy percentage.

    Anxiety, Cannabis toxicity, Cortex, Memory, Hippocampus. Effects of Cannabis sativa extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in the mice. Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms due to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum.

    Interest in medicinal uses of cannabis is growing. Cannabis sativa has been suggested as a possible adjunctive in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of an extract of Cannabis sativa on catalepsy and brain oxidative stress induced by haloperidol administration in mice. Mice were euthanized 18 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Mice treated with cannabis and haloperidol showed significant decrease in catalepsy duration, compared with the haloperidol only treated group.

    This decrease in catalepsy duration was evident on days after starting cannabis injection. Later the effect of cannabis was not apparent. Glucose in brain decreased by The administration of only haloperidol increased MDA Monitoring Metabolite Profiles of Cannabis sativa L.

    Cannabis sativa trichomes are glandular structures predominantly responsible for the biosynthesis of cannabinoids, the biologically active compounds unique to this plant. To the best of our knowledge, most metabolomic works on C.

    Partial least squares discriminant analysis models successfully classified metabolites of the trichomes based on the harvest time. According to RT-PCR analysis, gene expression levels of olivetol synthase and olivetolic acid cyclase influenced the accumulation of cannabinoids in the Cannabis trichomes during the monitoring time. Effect of induced polyploidy on some biochemical parameters in Cannabis sativa L. This study is aimed at testing the efficiency of colchicine on inducing polyploidy in Cannabis sativa L.

    Shoot tips were treated with three different concentrations of colchicine 0, 0. The biggest proportion of the almost coplanar tetraploids The ploidy levels were screened with flow cytometry. The biochemical analyses showed that reducing sugars, soluble sugars, total protein, and total flavonoids increased significantly in mixoploid plants compared with tetraploid and diploid plants. Tetraploid plants had a higher amount of total proteins, total flavonoids, and starch in comparison with control plants.

    The results showed that polyploidization could increase the contents of tetrahydrocannabinol in mixoploid plants only, but tetraploid plants had lower amounts of this substance in comparison with diploids.

    Also, we found such changes in protein concentration in electrophoresis analysis. In overall, our study suggests that tetraploidization could not be useful to produce tetrahydrocannabinol for commercial use, and in this case, mixoploids are more suitable. The potential of hemp Cannabis sativa L. A comprehensive research programme in the Netherlands has concluded that fibre hemp is a potentially profitable crop, having the right profile to fit into sustainable farming systems.

    Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats. Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats.

    Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R.

    Ameliorative Efficacy of Nigella Sativa. Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases. The present study investigates the ameliorative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil NSO on cannabis -induced moto-cognitive defects. The Morris water maze MWM paradigm was used to assess the memory index, the elevated plus maze was used for anxiety-like behaviour, and the open field test was used for locomotor activities; thereafter, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed for histopathologic studies.

    Cannabis -like Scopolamine caused memory impairment, delayed latency in the MWM, and anxiety-like behaviour, coupled with alterations in the cerebello-hippocampal neurons. The post-treatment of rats with NSO mitigated cannabis -induced cognitive dysfunction as with scopolamine and impaired anxiety-like behaviour by increasing open arm entry, line crossing, and histological changes. The observed ameliorative effects of NSO make it a promising agent against moto-cognitive dysfunction and cerebelo-hippocampal alterations induced by cannabis.

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant , Cannabis sativa , used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties.

    Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the growth, physiology and cannabinoid production of Cannabis sativa L. The concentration of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L.

    The object of this study was to test the effects of UV-B radiation on the physiology and cannabinoid production of C. Drug and fiber-type C. Physiological measurements on leaf tissues were made by infra-red gas analysis. Drug and fiber-type control plants had similar CO 2 assimilation rates from 26 to 32 0 C.

    Drug-type control plant had higher dark respiration rates and stomatal conductances than fiber-type control plants. None of the cannabinoids in fiber-type plants were affected by UV-B radiation. However, fiber plants showed no comparable change in the level of cannabidoil CBD. Resin stripped form fresh fiber-type floral tissue by sonication was spotted on filter paper and irradiated continuously for 7 days. The increased level of.. The sorter can also identify whole blood specimens and convey them to automated instruments for complete blood counts and other hematology testing.

    These specimens can then be manually transported and inserted into the instrument of choice. The Ideal Automation Blueprint When first considering the purchase of a fully automated laboratory, the layout of the laboratory and shape of the room is critical for maximizing the return on investment. A Look at the Future Given that automation is becoming a commodity in larger laboratories, laboratorians need to stay up-to-date on new opportunities.

    For each area below, I forecast what form laboratory automation may take in the future, perhaps in the next decade or two. Automated Specimen Separation Blood separation into serum or plasma has been an insuperable bottleneck in all clinical laboratories.

    Ideally, sample separation should be done at the point of sample collection and incorporate automated labeling. An elegant point-of-care separation solution, the Axial Separation Module, was developed for separating formed elements from plasma in a whole blood specimen in under one minute immediately after phlebotomy 3. Unfortunately, this technology failed to gain market acceptance.

    Similar technologies are under development that uses creative means to impart increased centrifugal forces on the blood specimen.

    Hopefully, some of these will be commercialized in the near future. Specimen Transportation Despite the variety of methods of transportation currently available, all have considerable flaws.

    Human and robotic courier services have inflexible pickup times and delays, while pneumatic tube systems have potential for specimen damage and limited carrying capacity 4. Electric track vehicles reduce the damage risks of tube systems and the lack of flexibility from the courier service, but they take up large amounts of space. One alternative is automated specimen delivery using mobile robots that can negotiate the halls of a hospital 5, 6.

    Once in the laboratory, the robot can automatically deliver its payload and continue service without having to interrupt a laboratory technologist 7. In the near future, drones may provide both extra-laboratory as well as inter-laboratory delivery. Inside a laboratory, drone deliveries can make a foot journey in less than 2 seconds, according to Donald Nagy, CEO of California Computer Research and member of the Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

    Pre-Analytical Automation Once specimens arrive in the laboratory there are new pre-accession processors that can start with a bucket of randomly oriented specimens and finish with racked and processed specimens for downstream analytical processing. Researchers at the University of Utah are developing an automated specimen inspector that examines critical specimen quality issues such as proper labeling, sufficient volume, and correct vial additive. In the future, the inspector will also determine the presence of lipemia, icterus, or hemolysis through several overlaid labels 8.

    Essentially the entire accessioning process will be automated so that time from phlebotomy to result will be 30 minutes or less. Sample Labeling Mistakes in sample labeling can lead to sample misplacement and mislabeling, resulting in a loss of samples and inaccurate results. The progression from manual labeling to 2- and 3-D barcodes has dealt with many labeling problems and significantly cut down on sample misplacement and mislabeling. However, the development affordable radio-frequency identification RFID is poised to allow positive passive specimen tracking as samples are moved from patient bedside to analysis.

    While barcodes often require manual scans, RFID completely eliminates human involvement. Reduced costs for the technology, and advantages such as error reduction and reduced labor demand, have put RFID in the spotlight at the Mayo Clinic and other organizations 9.

    Disruptive Analytical Methods and Trends Several emerging methods closely related to laboratory automation are poised to shift the landscape of laboratory testing. In addition, the push for expanding biobanking and home monitoring cannot be ignored. Technologies such as Ion Torrent, Myseq, ionPGM, and PackBio are already demonstrating improved turnaround time and positive microbe identification in clinical settings. Cell Based Assays Another disruptive technology will be the use of living cells from patients as diagnostic tools.

    Cell-based assays are being used for diagnosis, as well as predicting clinical outcomes and response to therapy in an increasing number of diseases including cancer, organ rejection, and diabetes Exfoliated organ cells have the potential to supplement current biomarker-based analyses since cell-based assays can measure aberrations in cell activity that may be present in complex chronic diseases.

    For example, salt sensitivity of blood pressure is a major public health challenge and a disease for which there is no convenient diagnostic test. We demonstrated that cells isolated from urine in normal subjects not only provided a personalized cell-based diagnostic test for salt sensitivity, but also provided a personal salt index, which is the amount of sodium each person should safely consume in a day Like conventional analytical techniques, cell based assays will be readily automated when sufficient volume justifies the investment.

    Biobanking Biobanking is the process of storing left over medical specimens along with data describing the phenotype and genotype of the patient from which the specimen was obtained.

    This material is valuable to diagnostic and pharmaceutical companies for research and development. Most of the steps in biobanking have been automated, such as specimen aliquoting, labeling, freezing, and storing.

    Thus, automation can turn medical waste i. Home-Based Monitoring Monitoring is pervasive with the advent of wearable sensors that communicate with smartphones.

    The hope is that individuals will use this medical data to adopt healthier lifestyles. Increasingly, biomarkers in body fluids will also be the target of ubiquitous personal sensors.

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    PDF | Cannabis sativa L. preparations have been used in medicine for and--in cases where it is impossible to separate the desired clinical Laboratory- based molecular neurobiological sure due to an underlying psychiatric condition, ie, were isolated in pure form from various plants, and many. Determinaciуn de la eficacia de las micropartнculas de CBD y Δ9-THC . . In fact, cannabinoid plant chemistry is far more complex than pure flavonoids and other natural products have been isolated from Cannabis sativa antiproliferative actions on a wide spectrum of tumor cells in culture (Guzmбn, . Patricia Reggio who hosted me in her lab at the University of North . CBD. Cannabidiol. CBN. Cannabinol. CBR. Cannabinoid receptor .. structure in drug discovery targeting the ECS. The separation of the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids from their The purity of compounds − was.

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