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She hates me for herself, not for me or Wes. Wes touched a lot of lives in his short life. Was i a not so good person when i was with Jason, sure….
I was a crazy bitch at times. I can own that. The grief over Wes killed that selfish bitch. I make that treatment i mentioned for your eyes. I choose poorly with no good safe choices available.
Even begged my bio father to get us out. I know well what the grief over an innocent can do. And then came a Storm-crow took me under her wing with a word of kindness and a link to a forum. Now desperate in my searching in page after page I grew angry and shrewish till time tired my rage. I followed that link to the place with verdant Passion Where the welcome is kind And politeness the fashion!
Once there, I heard the call of a tired woman in the west Her heart tired and sore So I helped her how i knew best. And along came a sprocket renegade of the system with his kind words my heart insisted I must trust him. And I came to this place, at first to be heard, then to help business but what I found there instead Was warm Love through cold Christmas.
The woman in the west became my morning companion Alone, in the desert she was a friend when I had none. I befriended The renegade sprocket and what did I find but exactly the help I needed Man was the almighty on time!
And a whole host of other conditions not on the Mayo clinic list. Here in Colorado it is the wild wild west right now. In fact, it seems like the only green anyone cares about is dollar bill green and the green of greed. Yet the right to visit a dispensary other than your caregiver is a necessary one. What happens if your caregiver loses a grow?
What do you do if you need a different strain of medicine than what is available that day? What if they are out of the product that helps the most? Would you refuse to let me go to W m rt if W lgr33ns was out of my prescription? In that article, I talked about my dream of self sufficiency and the journey that led me to open my now closed business of Kiefair Keepsakes. Kiefair Keepsakes as a business may have failed miserably. The little woman behind that business, certainly did not fail.
Let me introduce myself to you properly. My name is Breedheen O. I frequently write under the pen name of Breezy Kiefair. I thought it was a wonderful idea, and it was. The result was obvious: I left the website up as an example of what I tried to help myself. I thought that maybe someone somewhere might be helped by the idea at least. I told myself that my energy and skills served others better simply by my dilige nt probing letters to my representatives at the local, state and federal level.
I also realized that I could serve the low income patient simply by sharing my o wn personal struggles openly and honestly. I rode the bus down from Longmont, eagerly protesting, knowi ng that few there had ever heard of me or cared to hear of me.
I spent that cold January day there with my peers. I went home and wrote a letter to them instead. I reported on what I hear d.
As I could, I gave my opinion online in real time whenever possible usually o ver social media because that was free. Compassion medication was, in retrospect , really easy to come by in those days when the laws regarding medicinal cannabi s in Colorado amounted to Amendment 20 and no more.
There were parts of those bi lls that I liked, and that made sense. Other parts I detested, but if you want t o know those opinions, you can ask me yourself. What I am trying to get to is the effects of this bill on a low income patient w ho is not a self-caregiver. If you are a low income patient, a caregiver Medica l Marijuana Center or Private Caregiver knows that they can sign you as their p atient and you can never, ever, buy as much herb as they can grow for you.
This is particularly true if you have a disease that qualifies you for additional pla nts for edibles or opiate replacement. Can you h elp me? All too often, the low income patie nt is made to feel horrible for even having the courage to ask for what they nee d regardless of ability to pay.
What do I mean by that? Well it can go se veral ways… 1. A caregiver might allow a patient to run up a huge tab that they could never pay on their income, making the low income patient worse off in the long run stres s kills.
A caregiver might throw the low income patient a very small amount of free herb each month of their most degraded, lowest quality medication regardless of what is medically needed for the patient. We smile and are genuinely grateful, but know there is somethin g seriously wrong with this picture.
Sometimes they promise to teach the low income patient how to grow for themselve s. When the caregiver makes claim to teach, this is basically promising the pati ent self-sufficiency when it comes to their necessary medication.
Later, they te ll the patient it is too expensive to do on that patients income generally they say this to keep control of their plants. For exa mple, I harvested a nice Low Rider 2 auto-flower plant: I used the sun and some CFL bulbs for lighting. You can get great grow containers by going to most any bakery by asking for was te icing buckets, or recycled buckets of any kind that have not been used to sto re chemicals.
I feed mostly on black-strap molasses and my vegetable food waste composted by fishing bait worms. I planted the Low Rider 2 plant in March and ha rvested at the end of May. The story goes many ways, but the end result is the low income cannabis patient is left without medication or severely under-medicated. Meanwhile, that same caregiver gets to make cash off selling the low income patients medicine. There is much fundamentally wrong with t he above scenarios. As so on as the ink dried on these two bills, all anyone seemed to be able to think ab out was the almighty dollar and how to pay all the fees that are now required.
B efore the bill became law, I could walk in to most any dispensary and walk out w ith a few grams of cannabis free of charge so long as I promised to review it fo r them on youtube or put up a status on social media that I was smoking a specif ic strain from a specific place and give the contact information of the compassi onate party. I was basically doing an advertisement for that compassionate party for the price of a few days medication.
A month later, on ly 2 individuals were willing to help me with my medicine regardless of my abili ty to pay… In the wake of these regulations, a few new options popped up for some.
Religiou s cannabis organizations sprang up over night. There has long been a religious c annabis movement, but it too saw a boom similar to the recent dispensary opening boom here in Colorado. These religious organizations that were already establis hed saw higher demand and fewer donations.
Some of these Cannabis as a religious sacrament organizatio ns give herb away completely free of charge, others were little more than a fron t to sell medicinal grade herb to anyone who wanted it at a slight discount off of dispensary prices.
Let me be clear that I believe in cannabis as a religious sacrament on many leve ls. Just look up the work of Anthropologist Sula Bennet for a Judeo-Christian pe rspective regarding the plant cannabis.
Religions all over the globe have been u sing cannabis to aid in communicating with their understanding of a higher intel ligence since the stone age. I will defend to my death the right of all to posse s and use cannabis on a religious level, medical level, and yes, even a recreati onal level. That being said, an organization that promotes itself as a religious organization should not be just another loophole in the law for shwag smokers t o lay hands on medicinal genetics.
If that shwag smoker an un-carded individual is getting spiritual guidance, and aid that would be expected of most any chur ch or spiritual organization, then it is valid. If all that organization provide s is access to herb, then I personally take issue with them.
There are cannabis as a religious sacrament organizations out there that do meet as a community on a regular weekly or bi weekly basis and some do actually of fer spiritual guidance. I do not doubt that these circles of smo kers have strength, and are a good thing. Even among those wh o got there ordination online are those who genuinely do good. Some have filed a s non-profits, others have not.
Its hard to know who to trust. Many great things have come from humble beginnings. It was hard for me to know who to lend my pen to. Especially when I generally write for free, or review for barter of a few g rams of medication. I have spent many hours listening to m y low-income peers carefully and I know of at least one individual that fits one , or more of the examples I have listed.
By July , I was feeling rather defeated. It seemed like I was under attack b y both sides of the cannabis issue. The legal latitude given to the counties and cities o f Colorado demanded even more of the cannabis patient. Now we had to go talk to city council. Now we had to go vote to stop the madness in our own back yards af ter we fought so hard to get some sense at the state house.
Meanwhile, the pro-c annabis side of the issue seemed to treat me, and those like me, as if we were a stone around their neck due to our inability to pay for medication we clearly n eed.
With the new licensing fees and regulations, I saw really awesome medicine growe rs with hearts of gold go out of business, or sell their hard built shops. Many had been to culinary arts s chool, or owned commercial bakeries previously and were no danger to anyone as f ar as safety. As defeated as I felt, however, somewhere in my heart I wanted to believe it was all just a nightmare that I could somehow wake up from.
If we go to the state and local authorities for help with fo od and funds because those doctors all agree we are incapable of formal work, we risk being punished with painfully little help, or no help at all.
I began posting my artwork in hopes that perhaps I could find a patron or two. People mistook my digital photography with artistic edits for real paintings. It was all very flattering, but did little t o help me raise funds for my fast approaching re-certification on my license. We bsites wanted to post my work, but then found my images unsuitable because the s ource photography was taken with equipment that was beyond obsolete. Even in the most bargain of dispensary, I am still not going to be able to buy as much medication as I need.
I personally did go a little bit mad with the stress and press ure. I threatened to stop activism all together on more than one occasion. I kep t sheepishly picking my pen back up because I knew people like me needed a voice. I knew I had been gifted by my understanding of a creator a skill-set. My obsolete little red web-book went down ov er and over. I patiently worked it back to life with myself for tech support aga in and again. I even sacrificed many long held files to get myself back up and r unning.
With my openness on social media, and my picture in the local paper, people on t he street in my little town were talking.
Talking was a good thing. I was happy people were being more open about it. Too long has it been a topic that was only discussed behind closed doors. I continued to try to educate wherever I went. I had a lot of great conversations with both cardholders and non-cardholders. People we re not always kind. I did not expect them to be. Their unkindness was hard on me nonetheless. I tried not to let it bother me. I did my best to behave as though I had a thick skin even when my heart was breaking.
Near the end of August , my husband spotted an property on eBay. Low down payment, low, low, low, monthly payme nts. It sounded too good to be true. We had been searching and sear ching for a bit of land that even we could pay off with no problem. It was just sitting there, so much like what I had imagined as I wrote last wi nter that I cried for joy.
We bought it on faith that it was real and it was our s. We did our best to prep the old Winnebago we called Frieda for a long trip. My husband and I went up the Poudre River valley for a week to await harvest.
We thought camping there would be a cheap option while we waited. We have a Kiefair family tradition to stop there once a summer anyway, and we had not yet been there in the summer of We go there to remember our wedding. We were married by a ju dge in Cheyenne, Wyoming in April of Then we returned to Colorado. We held our own private ceremony, giving ourselves to each other and the service of our understanding of the creator in a cabin at Glen Echo Lodge. Yes, cannabis was i nvolved in our wedding ceremony.
W e had to change a coil off her alternator a few times and she drank gas like cra zy. When we came back out of the valley, Frieda all but died. Boon-docking is an RV dwellers term for parking in an area where no one cares if you sleep in your vehicle. I m et several cardholders there too. A shared bowl between those in a harsh existen ce is a beautiful thing. The feeling you get when you find someone to share a bowl with, someone who need s to ease their pain, and you share it with them, or they with you it is sublime.
I could only bear to wri te about the treatment I received from my blood in poetry, my first love in the writing world. Below follows my account of my last encounter with family. So I took her jump-start and two fivers As if my flowers were crack rock And turned them into two clean sets of clothes Up on the clearance rack. We bought a chilton manual for our engine, and did our best to fix the RV. I mad e beaded necklaces and earrings and signs to sell them.
I sold none in the end, instead I gave them as gifts of thanks to the people around me who were kind. It became very clear, however that it would take more funds than we had to make ol d Frieda worthy of the high mountain passes. In fact, she could only go a block or two at a time before refusing to budge like an old stubborn mule.
It was also clear that the only people that were gonna help Mr. Kiefiar get home w ere Mr. Kiefair, perhaps with the exception of intercession on the part of the creator. I took a trip to the hospital for severe abdominal pain, bloody stools, dehydration and rapid weight loss, and other such unpleasant bowel issu es.
When that got me no answers, I was about ready to break emotionally. On September 27, at I send a text to Sir Ands a lot. Then Bang, Bang Bang on my door. My husband stepped to the door and they asked to see ID. A wretched habit that w ould be long broken if I but had the herb to not need to stretch it with tobacco! They love Rv living. And I nearly gasped in pain. My heart ski pped a beat. And the older officer goes in to see my Social Security squalor. He got to see t he disorder caused by disease at play.
I saw them yesterday. The ir Rv description sounded like mine. They were reported to be in the same locati on as I. I get the message its all ok. They warn us of cracks we could fall through when it comes time for shift ch ange. They warn about more knocks at my door. We got my compassion delivery of early pull cannabis I got to trim myself. It was enough for about 2 weeks at my conservation dosing schedule.
We were fin ally ready to make our move. We packed all of our possessions, including our three cats into a rented moving truck. As we were packing the truck, I listed the RV on craigslist as a Karma sp ecial for much less than she was worth. Before we could even get all of our thin gs out, she was sold.
The baby-boomer gentleman handyman who bought her patientl y waited as we got the rest of our things out. Then he patiently waited for us t o deliver it. He made no complaints when she broke down in the intersection and he had to come tow her to his house. We even had a great conversation about how much medical cannabis has done for me personally. This is part of what I had to say to him: Just to tell you how much cannabis has given me back, let me say this: It looked like I had a bright future in store for me.
This was before t he pain and exhaustion got to be a constant issue. I got my medicinal cannabis license in June of It expires on November 22, Why do I even ha ve to re-certify when even the Social Security Administration admits I have no h ope of ever being able to pull in a paycheck for myself? He even gave me his email address and made me promise to write, and I intend to when I have the strength. We were finally free to go to our land.
We had a motor that would run to get us there, but now we had no shelter. I knew that winter at 9, feet is harsh. I was deceive d in no way about what the cold can do in this area of Colorado. My family has s urvived in this area of Colorado in remote locations before. I was gifted a goos e down comforter by a canna-brother and sister to ensure my warmth.
They know who they are and t heir generosity knows no bounds. I was not as worried as all my social media fri ends and regulars seemed to be. We used part of the proceeds from Fri eda to buy a tent that appeared to be at least 3 season. I knew internet service and cell service would be spotty in Costilla County.
We knew we would have no e lectricity, and no source of water. We had laid in stock o f dry goods over the past few months and figured that even without transportatio n, we had enough food to survive. Its not as if my body lets me consume anywhere near a normal amount of calories in a day anyway.
There was so much joy in my heart as we made our way south. Despite the fact tha t I knew life in the high mountain desert would be harsh, I could feel burdens l ifting off of me with each mile marker. I knew I was no longer renting. I was angry because I knew that for each hardship I endured, there were easily hundreds of others other medicinal cannabi s patient going through the same thing and likely worse.
We are on the buses wit h you who do not partake, we are among the homeless, we are the some of your nei ghbors you chat with, we work along side you. I also realized that I had given a lot of people my permission mentally to make me feel bad about my medication.
I decided it had to stop. Sometime the third week of September, I wrote a bit about this aspect of myself in my little composition notebook. This is what I had to say about giving others my permission to make me feel bad about my medication.
I choose to give no one the right to make me feel bad or guilty about my medicat ion. Not every mind is r eceptive, most are closed shut like an antiquated bear trap on a surprisingly yo ung stereotype regarding my medication. Catch me online and I have a link. So toke well friends, Your in good company! No matter what life threw at us, we continued to light our pipe in praise to our creator whenever we had herb to fill it.
Each day we would thank the creator for the strength to live and give another day. Despite all the hardship, we finally were going somewhere that felt like home. W e got to what was represented as our land after dark on October 3, There w as an awesome lightning show in the sky that night, and it seemed the creator wa s matching us hit for hit.
The next morning, we cleared sagebrush, set up the te nts, unloaded the moving truck into the tent and ensured the cats were safe. Not a week later, we were provided with a tent camper someone had left up on the mesa for anyone who might need shelter. Its canvas was worn and weather rotted in many places. Still we gave thanks and proceeded with patching and decided to sleep in the more intact end. We found that our two closest neighbors, Seanie Be th and Tom, each about eight tenths of a mile away, were kind beyond measure.
I continued to be open and honest with those around me about my medicinal cannabis need. Neither of my neighbors had a card, neither really wanted or needed one, but neither looked down their nose at me for my medicinal use. Both have provide d me with cash to walk into a dispensary for cannabis to ease my suffering. They even let me earn it so I personally would feel better about it. Our neighbor Tom loaned us a plot map of our section of the mesa. We discovered by October 18th that we were on the wrong land!
I called the only lawyers I knew , cannabis lawyers. I only needed some direction on which way to jump. I knew I was squatting on land I did not own through no fault of my own.
I knew that one of the land owners took personal issue with cannabis users. I listened and respo nded calmly as one owner detailed every perceived wrong cannabis users had ever committed against them.
I was tired beyond measure. I knew that I was in the middle. My cats died one by one. I cried like a mad woman, then I got my husband a dog for his birthday and to he lp us stand watch. When I was able to get no directio n from any lawyer, I called the property owner and showed him what I saw on the map.
In the end, he saw it too. He knocked some money off my purchase price, low ered my payments for a year and promised to help us move. My husband and I clear ed sage once more. In the end, our land owner moved the tent-trailer and no more. My husband moved much of our things by hand. I wanted to cry as he patiently c arried them up the dirt road and to the proper lot. I kept wanting to help, he k ept reminding me to save my strength. A neighbor came by and inquired what he wa s doing. He and my neighbor used her car to move the rest.
We gave thanks we wer e finally in the right spot. I went to all the cannabis shops I could get rides to, and only found one worth giving the respect of a mention. This dispensary has been were I have chosen to spend my few cannabis dollar s. It has been a joy to work with them.
They keep their herb in glass. They keep that glass refrigerated. Their selection is really awesome. Even in the city I would be impressed with the number of strains they offer. Their bud tend is know ledgeable and always does his best to give me medication with the effect I happe n to need that day. They always have something with the effect I need that day medically.
That is a real rarity in my personal experience. Even better than that, they have a hear t. A phone call from Mr. Lauve to La Casa was all it took to get me some compass ion. Lauve graciously offered to donate advertising space in Cannabis Health News Magazine in exchange for medication for me from La Casa.
As I type these w ords, tears of gratitude stream down my face. I am in awe of how the creator kee ps providing for me, first the land at a price we could afford, then lowering th e purchase price, now providing me with medication and friends in the desert. Leonar d Garcia and Mr. The tent camper is often cold. We still do with out things we need on a regular basis. We ran out of propane before we even got to the right land. I have peace of mind that I am where I am meant to be, and a loving creator watch es over me.
We have plans to build a wooden structure with a Teepee architectura l style and an open fire pit. Once the wooden frame is up, we will wall it in wi th the native volcanic stone and mortar. We plan for this to be our guest house. The doctor down here is sending me to a specialist to have my growths biopsied and my gut checked over.
I still loose weight like crazy, b ut sometimes I win some back. Whatever my body may have in store for me, at leas t I seem to be back to my peaceful self. I do not know how or if I can re-certif y my license when it expires in a matter of weeks and should have been taken car e of months ago. Lauve graciously is trying to help me there too, even as he runs around trying to help us all at the Department of Revenue.
I have faith that I will not have to make those choices. I know I will not give up my sacrament, I will not deny what I believe to be true. I have freedom to be lieve what I like when it comes to religion under the constitution of this count ry.
On that I stand. In the first amendment I wrap myself and hope. If I had seen onl y the bad in this story, I never would have made it all the way to my land. I wo uld have surely given up somewhere. Cannabis helps me medically for sure, but it is also a big part of the faith that keeps me hanging on through all the pain.
Sometimes its hard to do the right thing when faced with hard choices. Trust the good in you, make a leap of faith every now and again. Especially when I see the wild and human raised but returned to the wild horses in my meadow some afternoons. Leaving Mesa Kamp Kiefair In early October , things seemed to be picking up and making a turn for the better in my life. Life was harsh, but good. I enjoyed living at nine thousand feet immensely.
The wildlife in the area was a constant source of joy to me. The wild horses and human raised but released to the wild horses often visited me.
Each morning I woke before dawn to greet icy morning and the b eauty of the sunrise. Every morning the tiny footprints of the chipmunks and gro und squirrels covered the space outside my shelter. I had an alarm set each even ing to remind me to step out and enjoy the sunset. The expense of propane more than our budget to bear. W e had built a large fire pit outside the canvas sided pop up camper, but it was rarely used to its full potential.
So I rem ained cold and hungry. It was much the same with cooking responsibilities. There were many days, often several days in succession when we went hungry with perfe ctly good food frozen solid in their tin cans in the pantry.
Inter-personally, things were not going well between Mr. Kiefair and I either. W e fought all the time. I take responsibility for some pretty bizarre behavior during this time.
After a fight that left me quite insane, I was so distraught that I took off walking ac ross the mesa in the snow wearing nothing but my boots, my my hat, my walking st ick and a grim expression on my face. He had goaded me into going out onto the m esa in the snow with the intention of letting mother nature take my life due to exposure.
I should not have played his game, and I feel horrible for having done such an extreme and dangerous activity. I just wanted out of the world I found myself stuck in.
A world where I was right next to someone I loved a great deal, yet feeling that I was not loved in return. Yet, I was also not allowed to seek pain relief from a medical doctor via pharmaceutical medications either.
He even called the police on me the day my license expired telling them I inten ded to set fire to all the sage on the mesa. I had never said any such thing. I lived in a world where anger was thrown at me and brought out of me on a daily b asis, especially when I was trying to do any writing, activism, or art work.
One day in early December , it all boiled over. It was a warm night in comparison to the bitter cold early December nights we ha d been having up at 9, ft above sea level on the wind swept mesa in Southern Colorado.
For the time being, the wind had blown itself out, and the storm had a bated. The glow of the fire felt like heaven itself to my cold and fibromyalgia pain ridden bones and muscles. We had not been able to afford propane for the stove in the Coleman tent trailer in some time. Most nig hts, a down comforter and body heat were the only source of warmth as I slept ba ck to back with my husband, always with nearly a foot of space in between us.
In the dark of those cold nights, I often cried myself to sleep. I was so cold. Th e anguish in my soul sprang from the inherent knowledge that the man I loved lyi ng next to me did not seem interested in holding me; not for the sake of body he at, nor for any other reason. She had seen my weight plummeting since I had moved up to the mesa. This was due in part to my chronic wasting associated with my disease, but the real root cause was my husband.
As I said before, we had food, but it was frozen solid in their cans or needed t o be prepared over heat.
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Forensic Sc ience Internatio nal. Leafy online dat abase. Project CBD upda te: Qualitat ive and quantitat ive aspects of. Journal o f Industrial Hem p 8 2: The hemp russet mit e. Journal of Indus trial Hemp 8 2: Journal of In dustrial Hemp 9 1: Host-parasi te relationshi ps in Cannabis. Journ al of Industrial H emp. Mukherj ee A, Roy, SC. Resu lts of molecular a nalysis of.
Cann abis sativa L. Sequence heterogeneity of cannabidiolic- and. To sell m arijuana, you nee d a clever name. Los An geles Times ,F e b. Missis sippi-grown mar ihuana — Canna bis. Infertility and chromosomal uniformity in Cannabis. Canadian Journal of Botany Morphologic al variation of achen es of Cannabis.
Cana dian Journal of Bo tany The species problem in Cannabis: Academic Pr ess, NY. Cannab is as a source of medicinals, nu traceuticals, and functi onal foods. Medicina l Plant Resear ch Evolution and clas sification of Ca nnabis sativa mar ijuana, hemp i n relation to human. Botanical Rev iew Response to the errone ous critique of my Cannabis monogra ph by R. Small E, Ant le T. A pr eliminary stud y of pollen disper sal in Cannabis sati va in re lation to win d.
Journal of Ind ustrial Hemp 8 2: Small E, Beck stead HD. Comm on cannabinoi d phenotypes in s tocks of Cannabis. Small E, Becks tead HD. Cannabinoid phe notypes in Cannabis sat iva. Small E, Marcu s D. Tet rahydrocannab inol levels in he mp Cannabis sat iva L. Expan sion of female sex or gans in response to pr olonged virgini ty in. Cannabis s ativa marijuana. Genetic Resour ces and Crop Evolut ion Ge netic Resources and Crop Ev olution The evolution of cannabinoid phenotypes in Cannabis.
A num erical taxonomic an alysis of Cannabis with special ref erence to. Syste matic Botany 1: The biology of Canadian w eeds. Cannab is sativa L.
Journal o f Plant Science Self-published, Amsterdam, Holla nd. Diagnosis or d escription. Tet randria male plants have four stamens. These aspects of morpho logy are the only. For genera with only one species, such as. Cannabis , Li nnaeus provided a longer desc ription in Genera Plant arum Linnaeus,. The Cannab is descriptio n in.
Genera Plant arum is limited to flower an d seed morphology. Transla ted from Latin: Perianth single-l eaved, oblong, acuminat e, opposite at the base,. Ovary mi nute, Style divid-.
Calyx tightly cl osed. Nut globo se-depre ssed, bival vate. Note a discrepa ncy: Species Plantarum Li nnaeus descri bed males with four. Fiv e stamens is correct. The correc t version was passed down verbat im from. Henc e the error was. Linnaeus correc ted his mistake in the seco nd edition of Specie s Plantarum. Synonymy an d references. Linnaeus cited five C.
In fact th e taxon appears in Materi a Medica on page Linnaeus, 17 Box 1 Trans lation of author and citatio n abbreviations by Linnae us Cannabi s foliis digitatis L innaeus, Hortus Clifforti anus Cannabi s sativa Bauhin, Pinax Theatri Bo tanici Cannabi s erratica Bauhin, Pinax Theat ri Botanici , p.
Linnaeus nota bly excluded taxa of Asian Cannab is from the C. Sixteen years ea rlier, in his previous syno psis of Cannabis ,L i n n a e u s discuss ed. Linn aeus knew about. In hi s Materia Medica, Linnaeus l i s t e d. LINN , specim en no. As note d by. Jarvis , Villiers holds a one-year priority over Schultes et al. No type location is gi ven, but in Linnaeus lived in Upps ala. Leaves branch alternately from the stalk, palmately compound, light.
Inflorescences are loose, not dense; subtending floral leaves have a sparse. Styles and stigmas are not prominent, pale green in color.
The fruit includes a. The previous ly-recognized le ctoype, Clifford He rbarium p. The flowerin g top is somewhat denser than 1 Diagnosis or des cription. Lamarck provided a full description of C.
Lamarck then separated C. Their leaflets are very narrow, linear-lanc eolate, and very acuminate. The male individuals bear five to seven leaflets, but those that are female may.
The female flowers have a velous calyx, and long. Lamarck noted that C. Lamarck cite d six synonyms and thei r authors:. Cannabi simi lis exotica Bauhin Pina x Theatri Botanici Kalengi-ca nsjava Rheede Hortus Ma labaricus ; Ts j e r u - c a n s j a v a Rheede Hortus Malabari cus ; Cannabis indi ca Rumph Herbarium A mboinense ; 5: Lama rck omitted two syno nyms cited by Linnaeu s: Bangue cannabi Ray ,.
Bauhin and Ch erler — 2. Both Linna eus and Lamarck. Going back in time: Linder 17 39 , Burman ,. The first European to assi gn separate names to Europea n. It consists of the uppermost 30 cm of a. However, the effects of sowing density upon branching density are minimal in. Leaves branch alternately from the. Central leaflets are narrowly linear-lanceolate, acuminate, with sharp.
Inflorescence are somewhat compact; subtending. Styles and stigmas are prominent, agglutinized with trichome. The type specimen is a sample of sinsemilla,. No type location is gi ven. He explored India and China betwee n and In Indi a he made. Unfortunat ely he did not mention Ca nnabis in.
Lamarck erroneously described C. In fact, both C. Lamarck may have erre d. L amarck cited authors who il lustrations of Asian Cann abis also depicted. Intere stingly, th e same year that Lamarck described C. Thouin d e s c r i b e d chanvre. Note that we cite as the year that Lamarck coin ed C. We us e the date specified by Staf leu and. Va v i l o v collec ted wild-type germpl asm near Saratov , Samara, Astrak han, and. Antropova co mpels one to consider it to be, withou t doubt, wild.
Plants at the wi ld end of the spectrum expr essed anthocyani n in their stalks, and. Seed color ra nged from light or white forms with a mo saic,. V avilov provide d a brief diagnosis, tra nslated from Russian: At ma turation, the wild va riety with. As w as mentioned. Ja nischevsky , wild forms of hemp appear prim arily as dark-seeded.
Va v i l o v cited no sy nonyms. He apparently ov erlooked Czernaje w , who. Several speci mens labeled C. Small and Cronquist chos e one as the lectotype, sp ecimen Antropova The label states th e plant was grown in at the Kame nno-Stepnaya experi ment. V arvar a F. The specimen co nsists of the top 42 cm of what appears to be a lar ge plant, with.
Leaves with 3 — 5 leaflets,. Inflorescences are lo ose;. Achenes are medi um-sized 3. V avilov debated whether C. This qu estion was als o raised by Janis chevsky. Both botanists were unaware that th is debate. Thre e naturalis ts travellin g. Lepechi n said the plants did not differ from cu ltivated plants. Pall as said the wild-type hemp looked like cultivated plants,. V avilov and Janische vsky both decided that plant s around Saratov were truly wild. Small a th rows a variable into the debate.
He di scovered that domesticat ed. Cannabis reve rted to a wild-type ph enotype within 50 gene rations years of pr ohibi-. Thi s plasticity makes it diffi cult to distinguish trul y wild plants from. Small and Cronquist 19 76 suggested that trul y.
W as there any reproducti ve isolation betwee n wild-type and cultivat ed plants? Hybridiz ation and introgress ion was. There may have be en. Cannabis ruderalis Ja nisch. Janischevs ky coined the speci es name C. In addition to the La tin diagnosis, Janische vsky provided additi onal characters: The seed had an elon gated base in the form of a short pe dicle.
Within th e pedicle Janischevs ky detected cells with oily inclusions — so he co nsidered. V egetative char acters included rela tively short height , usually 0. Stalks were usua lly ribbed, with thick xylem at. Leaves had 5 — 7. Janischevs ky conducted common gard en experiments, which sh owed that wild-type.
They came into flower mid-June, an d first. Wild-type se eds readily disarticul ated from plants. Janischevs ky described mutual ism between wild hemp and an inse ct, Pyrrhocoris. The insect sucked oil ou t of the elaiosome. The rest of the seed wa s left intact. Th e following year , Janischevsky. Janischevs ky did not list any explicit syno nyms under C. H e did not men tion. He noted that taxa ot her than C. Messerschmidt in Amman, , Sievers , Ledebour , — 49 , and.
Y et others suggested th at C. Janischevs ky took five pages to recount obse rvations by 22 authors: Ern dtel, ,. Messerschmidt in Amman, , Sievers, , Rochel, ,C l a u s , ,. T ype specimen and illustr ations. It may be lost McP. Petersburg, , and no suitable isolectot ype. Small b provided a ph otograph of the lect otype. Janischevsky provided two plates of line draw ings, reproduced here as third-. A fruit of hemp collecte d in the vicinity of Saratov Dud akov ravine. Two diag rammatic drawings of the lo ngitudinal section of the fr uits.
A section in th e plane that goes throug h the edge of the fruit. A section in the. I- perianth ; II- pericarp, e- epicarp, E-. A bug Pyrrhoco ris apterus on a Carex leaf ca rrying a hemp fruit. It fl ourished along the T ok River, a righ t tributary of.
Vavil ov arrived at Saratov Unive rsity in , joinin g his senior. Janischevsky and V avilov too k field trips together down the V olga. Va v i l o v elaborated u pon C. His review of the li terature. V avilov cited six of. Howev er, V avilov added infor -. V avilov details work on wild-type hemp by his assistant Tatiana Y a. She compared germplasm collected by Antropova in Sa ratov with.
Sinskay a in the Altai Sinskay a, Leaves were medi um sized, with 5 — 9 narrow leafl ets. Plants ma tured before cultivated pl ants, seeds rapidly. Lastly we come to the question of pri ority. V avilov scooped his senior. Janischevs ky erected anothe r. Latin name fo r the same wild-type hemp growing near Saratov.
Jani schevsky politely me n-. Since then, botanists have altered the ranks of spontanea and ruderalis. Serebriakova a nd Sizov elevate d spontanea fr om a variety to a subspeci es. The subspeci es rank has been adopted by several auth ors e.
A troika of influe ntial Soviet texts set preced ence by choosing C. Soviet scie nce at that time writhe d under the rise of T. L ysenko became the. He fabricated ge netic theories using the rhet oric of Marx. Aft er Vav ilov was. Se rebriakova and Sizov elevated. Furthermore they described ruderalis as a very sho rt,. Th is departs from the concepts of V avilov and. Schul tes et al. Anders on cited Schultes , and described rude ralis as a short plant with.
They synonymi zed C. He collected germplasm near the Hungary-Ukraine border. America — obviously escapes from cultivation, and not wild, indigenous plants.
A recent elegant superresolution. Full r ecovery took. During the develo pment o f. In one of the early. Although t he high dose regimens were. Abrupt withdraw al did. Although the above studies were all carried out in young. In mo use hip pocampa l memb ranes,. There is an increas ing dem and fro m CUD p atients fo r the. In c ontrast, D 1 R or D 2 R agonis ts. N - acetylcys teine therapy proved so far o ne of the.
L ong - term Co nsequences of Cannabis Abuse. Long - term mariju a na consumption is clearly associated. The level of risk is dependent. For instance, in the g enera l popul ation,. There are important g ender - dependent differences in.
Beside s dep enden ce, toler ance and withd rawal sym ptoms. Once again, it is. Due to the high density a nd significance of CB 1 Rs i n b o t h. Chron ic m arijuan a consu mption h as long - term peripheral. To start with the toxic ity of the smoke, a.
Consequently, som e studies find association between. However, there is no change in the. Due to the profound effects of c anna bis constituents on. A case of cannabis - provoked recurrent pa ncreatitis. Chron ic c annabis co nsump tion also c an h ave positiv e. These po sitive as sociat ions appe ared to be.
However, cross - correlativ e ana lysis o f th e repo rts a lso. Also, systolic blood pressure was found to. Never thel ess ,. In conclusion, past and present cannabis use is associated. However , i t r emains to b e. Th is qu estion has b een p romp ted b y. One of these observations is truly amazing, because similarly. The Pharmacology and Molecular Biology of the. Endocan nab inoid Syste m Sensu Lat o.
The history of scientific research on cannabis stretches. Strictly sp eaking, the term "endo cannabinoid system". Howeve r, to t ell. To f ully appreci ate t he acute and long -. Such add itional recepto rs are th e seroto nin 5 - HT 1A. Phytocannabinoids also interact with ionotropic receptors of. Shortly after the d iscovery and cloning of the CB 1 R. Following the discovery of the second cannabinoid receptor,.
Anandamide is at least two orders of magnitud e les s. THC [21 9, 28 0 - ]. Additional endogenous fatty a cid - derivat ive. E ndocannabinoid Synt hesis. Precursors for both anandamide and 2 - AG are believed to. Multip le syn the tic rout es have been identif ied for anandam ide.
Its principal precursor is N - ara chidono yl -. PLD is predo minantly presynaptic i n the hippoca mpus in. In t he ventral. The chief biosynthet i c pat hway for 2 - AG when. This means that typically in dendrites, a. As a footno te, this mechan ism is not. So me hy poth esized that in spe cial c ases 2 - AG.
The central oval encompasses the mos t bas ic ele ments of the en docann abinoid sys tem in. Although these latter three re ceptors can be activated by lipids which d o not bind to the CB 1 R and t h e C B 2 R, other lipid - der ivatives such as.
Th ey ar e still. Finall y, the class of s ynthetic ca nnabinoids is fully encircle d by the endocann abino id sy stem o f bo th th e n arrow and. Am ong th em, 6 WIN5 - 2 is. However, many synthetic cannabinoids are pote nt. For the abbreviat ions, please consult the. List of Abbre viations. E ndocannabinoid De gradation and T ransport. Several enzymes can degrade endocannabinoids, but on ly. Anandamide is hydrolyzed into ara chi donic acid and.
FAAH - 1 is recognized as a therapeutic target in a number o f. As for th e. As a consequence of 2 - AG being. Later, a microglial MAGL - like activity. In the synapse, these two e nzymes are found in. Wh ile ABDH12 faces the. The most elusiv e member of the endocanna binoid. Finally, the od dball of intercellula r anandamide signal ing.
Schematic illust rati on of end ocannabi noid si gnaling i n a gluta mater gic synap se. NAPE and PLD are al so displayed in th is figur e, both of whi ch are necessary for an andam ide sign aling, but i t is pos sible th at anand amid e. GABAergic synapses wi th funct ional implica tions [33 4]. The clon ing and initial characteri zation o f the cen tral. Only a few years. On e shorter splice v ariant of the r at and.
The "normal length " C B 1 R and it s express ed spl ice var iants,. The first clon ed hC B 2 R has only amino acids,. Both the CB 1 F ig. B Akt [3 50 - ]. For addit ional sign aling. Nevertheless, c annabinoid recept or mediated signali ng.
Although init ially it was foun d that the. Cannab inoids c an be div ided in to majo r grou ps based on. THC - deri vat i ves wit ho ut a pyra n ring are ca lle d non -. S ome dis tant phytocannab inoid -. COX in hibito rs b ased o n th e am inoalk ylind ole b ackbo ne,. Soon, these eff ects were attributed to an off - targe t. The agonist profil e of CB 1 a n d C B. CP 40 synthesize d by Pfizer in 19 74 Fig. Ba sed on thei r conte xt -. Multi faceted Interacti on of Ligands and G Proteins.
As discussed earlier, most G PCR ligands have their own. Hence the term "biased agonism" was coined . The first examp le for fun ctional selectivity was seen at. WIN5 - 2 up to nM was capable. This also explains why WIN - 2 has such a. Many GPCRs e xhibit a so - ca lled constit utive a cti vity,.
The oretically, antagonists are not supposed to. O-  and the diarylpyrazole NESS  fall. Notw ithstand ing, a rec ent chara cteriza tion of.
Rap - 1, Ras - proximate - 1; S1P, sphingosine 1 - phosphate; SMase, sphingomyel inase; Src, proto - oncoge ne tyrosine - protei n C - terminal kina se;. In that sense, it mimicke d the effect of the. In special case s, a GPCR can assume an inactive structure.
The first prototyp ic CB 1 R ant agonist ,. As a result, the. R- methanandamide inhibited the forced dissociation o f G. This p arado xica l. Al thoug h WIN5 - 2. Additional studies in CHO ce lls. WIN - 2 and anandamide of the forskolin - stimulated. There i s a.
WIN - 2 was t he most efficacious either t o stimulate. Al losteric Modul ation of the CB 1 R. An a dditional case of rece ptor - ligand inte ractio n d oes n ot. Allo steric modu lators can eithe r nega tively neg ative.
CB 1 R both in vitro and in vivo , thus mimic king t he effects of. Apart from this, there is at l east o ne more cholesterol. ORG competes with cholesterol for all osteric. In terestingly thoug h, cholesterol promote s. Th ese a lso suggest that dis turbanc es in.
Interestingly, certain phytocannabinoids differ in their. THC is 3R,4R - - - tra ns - delta tetrah ydro cann abino l i n. The non - psychoacti ve CBN  is technically an. CB 1 R [, ].
CBD is not a listed substance, and it is. However, the pharmacologic al prof ile of CBD is. As an example, low micro molar CBD. Strikingly, in the presence of other agonists, CBD c an. CBD content in cannabis also inversely corre lates with the. CBD wa s almost two orders of magnit ude l ess pot ent to. Su btype - preferri ng Endocannabinoi ds and. Among the endocannabinoids, 2 - ar achidon oylgly ceryl. NADA , and oleamide  are activators of the. Do cosat etraenyle thanolamid e.
O - arach idono ylethano lamine. Additionally, numerous highly selective and potent. As for the C B 1 R- selective an tagonists,. AM  and AM  are the best known inverse. As for the CB 2 R- selective lig ands, there are a number of. AM iodopravadoline;  , SR  and. Interesting ly, the so - called "inacti ve. The regulation and term ination of CB 1 R signa ling is. GASP1 and cannabinoid r eceptor interacting protein. Agonist - induced GP CR desen sitiz ation ra ther.
CB 1 R [ , , 44 8], w hich co ntrib utes to the tr ansien t. Interestingly, cannab imimetics promo te desensitization at. An additio nal pr otein, Sr c. Internalized CB 1 Rs are not recycled,. While this proces s is probably. Indeed, in cultured hippocampal GABAergic. Furthermore, this process can b e halted. This mech anism can. So me new data may sug gest th at the se. CB 1 R- rich areas su ch as the brain [46 4].
On ly CRIP1a has a palmitoylation. Accordingly, a recent study claims that CRIP1a. Th ese find ings w ere disco rdant with another.
CB 1 R- medi ate d G prot ein act ivat ion and the conseq uent. The p robable explanation to this discrepancy l ies in a third.
The se studies altog ether high light gaps in our. This hypothesis is bolster ed by a study where th e authors. CRI P1a o verexpres si on. WIN - 2 . The possible role of CRIP1a in. The r ecently " deorphani zed" G prot ein - coupled r eceptor. This rec eptor h as. CBD receptor of the past [, ], althou gh it is feasible. Endo genous agonists for GPR18 are N -. Notably, NAGly has been pro posed to be the. Notably, another study questioned whether the above. GPR18 s ignalizes through pertussis toxin - sensitive G.
The "deor phanized" G protein - co upled receptor GPR55 is t he fourth relevant metabotropic receptor that. I ts disco very was reported in.
Cannabis: A Treasure Trove or Pandora's Box?
Get More Green For Less Green. Find yourself the perfect dispensary and compare marijuana prices in your neighborhood, research strains, read user reviews. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes summarize our current knowledge on the recreational use of cannabis with respect Many phytocannabinoids including (5) Δ 9-THC and CBD interact with the CBGV and so on) do not have submicromolar affinity toward these receptors. generalize about the morphological, phytochemical, organoleptic, sources is elusive; our search traces them back to Corral () and Black and Capler more CBD than “Sativa,”and a THC-to-CBD ratio closer to Some authors have tried to reconcile “Sativa”and “Indica”with formal C. sativa and.