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  • were following the main companies we The discovered
  • Dutch East India Company
  • 1. Why use this guide?
  • You may find better sources for the history of a company or business in a local and to utilise the records we hold it will help to understand the following concepts Information Centres where you can find the main index to company numbers. Here are 70 Israeli startups that make Israel proud on its 70th Taboola - a content discovery platform that helps consumers find content they may like, assists 3PLW - a company that turns livestock manure, food waste and. You can follow or unfollow an organization on LinkedIn from its LinkedIn Page. You can follow up to 1, companies and get updates on key developments that .

    were following the main companies we The discovered

    Registered companies, once insolvent, are legally represented by either a receiver or liquidator. Unregistered partnerships or sole traders are represented by the Official Receiver or trustees appointed by the Court.

    However, basic information for live companies is available online through Companies House — see section 4 for more details. Notices of receiverships, liquidations and bankruptcies appear in the London Gazette, available on The Gazette website.

    This section provides broad advice on searching for company records in general at The National Archives, as well as suggesting some alternative, easy-to-use sources of basic company information.

    The subsequent sections of the guide provide advice on more specific record types. The registration of companies was first regulated by the Board of Trade and then by its successor departments.

    For a sense of the range of documents in the BT department you can browse through the BT divisions and the BT series in our catalogue. There are a number of different ways to locate documents for specific companies, some of them explained later in this guide, but the most straightforward ways to perform a broad search are as follows:. A simple search by the name of a company in our catalogue will often uncover any records we may hold for that company.

    The certificate number the same thing as the company number is in the top left-hand corner. Those records of companies that do not appear in our catalogue under the company name are often identified, instead, by their company number.

    When companies register they are issued with certificates of incorporation see left for an example from , sometimes referred to as certificates of registration. Each certificate has a unique number. The entries in these indexes are arranged alphabetically by the legal title of the company. As well as an alphabetical list of businesses, they contain alphabetical listings of streets, listing all the businesses located on each street. The information for each business is nothing more than:.

    General correspondence of the Board of Trade covers a broad range of subject matter, some of which relates to individual companies and businesses. There are various records series containing correspondence, which include:. Search BT 31 by company name or number for records of companies dissolved since but before the last 20 years or so.

    These files do not contain the internal day-to-day business records created by a company itself. These files are for a sample of companies only and are not comprehensive. They cover companies dissolved after and registered since in accordance with the Joint Stock Companies Act of Whether or not a company appears in these records can depend not only on whether it was selected as part of the sample kept, but on the changes in legislation down the years.

    On the other hand, the files for public companies dissolved since 2 July have all been preserved. For more detail on what is included see the BT 31 series description. Search series BT 41 by company name for records of companies dissolved before The files are likely to include some or all of the following:.

    BT 41 contains the files of all Joint Stock Companies which were registered under the Act of and dissolved before , and of those re-registered under the Act and dissolved before A sample selection of files for dissolved private companies which were exempt from a public return of accounts have been kept in series BT 95 and are arranged by the date of incorporation and company number ranges.

    They consist of a set of loose-leaf sheets which include details of the nature of the business. There is some overlap between BT 41 and BT 31 see section 8 , with about 2, companies registered under the Act appearing in both series.

    The Register of Business Names was established in Its purpose evolved over the years but it was essentially a register of the names of businesses whose trading names differed from that of the business owner or, from , the official company name. This was also the first register in which unincorporated companies such as partnerships and sole traders were listed. The register was abolished in but a sample of registration documents for businesses registered in , and every ten years from until has been preserved in BT You will need to browse the series to have a hope of finding anything.

    Search for records by company name in our catalogue and use our guides to records of the Foreign Office and Colonial Office for more in-depth research.

    Search HO 45 by company name for records of incorporation by Royal Charter. Correspondence concerning chartered companies before is among the records in record series BT 1 see section 7. As they were covered by separate legislation, records of mutual societies, which include building societies, friendly societies and industrial and provident societies, are located in a separate record department at The National Archives, whose code is FS.

    Browse the several dozen FS series for a sense of what they cover. You can use the advanced search to search within the whole of the FS department by name of the society. However, the following series require alternative search methods:. For information on the registrations of mutual societies contact the Financial Conduct Authority which operates a Mutual Society Registration. Use the advanced search to search by assurance company name in BT. Among the numerous departments of the Board of Trade and its successors is a Bankruptcy Department.

    For more guidance on these and related records see our guide to records of Bankrupts and insolvent debtors. For court proceedings leading to the liquidation and winding-up of companies search among the records of the:.

    Actions for the winding-up of companies, as distinct from bankruptcy action, were heard in the Court of Chancery, then from in the Chancery Division of the Supreme Court of Judicature and from in the Companies Court. Records of these proceedings are in C 26 , J 13 , J and J 14 For quick pointers Tuesday to Saturday Discovery is a catalogue of archival records across the UK and beyond, from which you can search 32 million records.

    Patented textile pattern by Christopher Dresser. All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3. Skip to Main Content. Search our website Search our records. How to look for records of Companies and businesses How can I view the records covered in this guide? View online How many are online? Order copies We can either copy our records onto paper or deliver them to you digitally. Visit us in Kew Visit us in Kew to see original documents or view online records for free.

    VOC's total capitalisation was ten times that of its British rival. They defined the VOC's general policy and divided the tasks among the Chambers. The Chambers carried out all the necessary work, built their own ships and warehouses and traded the merchandise. The Heeren XVII sent the ships' masters off with extensive instructions on the route to be navigated, prevailing winds, currents, shoals and landmarks.

    The VOC also produced its own charts. Other colonial outposts were also established in the East Indies , such as on the Maluku Islands , which include the Banda Islands , where the VOC forcibly maintained a monopoly over nutmeg and mace. Methods used to maintain the monopoly involved extortion and the violent suppression of the native population, including mass murder.

    The seventeenth-century Dutch businessmen, especially the VOC investors, were possibly the history's first recorded investors to seriously consider the corporate governance 's problems.

    In , he complained of the VOC's shoddy corporate governance. On 24 January , Le Maire filed a petition against the VOC, marking the first recorded expression of shareholder activism.

    In what is the first recorded corporate governance dispute, Le Maire formally charged that the VOC's board of directors the Heeren XVII sought to "retain another's money for longer or use it ways other than the latter wishes" and petitioned for the liquidation of the VOC in accordance with standard business practice. Since his large shareholdings were not accompanied by greater voting power, Le Maire was soon ousted by other governors in on charges of embezzlement, and was forced to sign an agreement not to compete with the VOC.

    Having retained stock in the company following this incident, in Le Maire would become the author of what is celebrated as "first recorded expression of shareholder advocacy at a publicly traded company".

    In , the history's first recorded shareholder revolt also happened among the VOC investors who complained that the company account books had been "smeared with bacon" so that they might be "eaten by dogs. The commercial interests of the VOC and more generally the Netherlands were reflected in military objectives and the settlements agreed by treaty.

    The British also gave up claims on Suriname as part of the Treaty of Westminster. There was also an effort to compensate the war-related losses of the Dutch West India Company in the midth Century by the profits of the VOC, though this was ultimately blocked. In terms of global business history, the lessons from the VOC's successes or failures are critically important.

    In his book Amsterdam: One could craft a defensible argument that no company in history has had such an impact on the world. In innumerable ways the VOC both expanded the world and brought its far-flung regions together. It pioneered globalisation and invented what might be the first modern bureaucracy.

    It advanced cartography and shipbuilding. It fostered disease, slavery, and exploitation on a scale never before imaged. A pioneering early model of the multinational corporation in its modern sense, [] [] [] [] the Company is also considered to be the world's first true transnational corporation.

    In the early s, the VOC became the world's first formally listed public company because it was the first corporation to be ever actually listed on a formal stock exchange. During its golden age, the Company played crucial roles in business , financial, [h] socio-politico-economic, military-political, diplomatic , ethnic , and exploratory maritime history of the world. In the early modern period, the VOC was also the driving force behind the rise of corporate-led globalization , [] [9] corporate power, corporate identity , corporate culture , corporate social responsibility , corporate ethics, corporate governance , corporate finance , corporate capitalism , and finance capitalism.

    With its pioneering institutional innovations and powerful roles in world history, [] the Company is considered by many to be the first major, first modern, [i] [] [] [] first global, most valuable, [] [] and most influential corporation ever seen. The VOC played a crucial role in the rise of corporate-led globalisation , [] corporate governance , corporate identity , [] corporate social responsibility , corporate finance , modern entrepreneurship , and financial capitalism.

    These financially revolutionary innovations allowed a single company like the VOC to mobilise financial resources from a large number of investors and create ventures at a scale that had previously only been possible for monarchs. Considered by many experts to be the world's first truly modern multinational corporation , [] the VOC was also the first permanently organised limited-liability joint-stock company , with a permanent capital base.

    The VOC is often considered as the precursor of modern corporations, if not the first truly modern corporation. With its pioneering features such as corporate identity first globally recognised corporate logo , entrepreneurial spirit, legal personhood , transnational multinational operational structure, high and stable profitability, permanent capital fixed capital stock , [] freely transferable shares and tradable securities , separation of ownership and management, and limited liability for both shareholders and managers, the VOC is generally considered a major institutional breakthrough [] and the model for large corporations that now dominate the global economy.

    The VOC was a driving force behind the rise of Amsterdam as the first modern model of international financial centres [m] that now dominate the global financial system. With their political independence, huge maritime and financial power, [] [] Republican-period Amsterdam and other Dutch cities — unlike their Southern Netherlandish cousins and predecessors such as Burgundian-rule Bruges [] and Habsburg-rule Antwerp [] [] [] — could control crucial resources and markets directly, sending their combined fleets to almost all quarters of the globe.

    It was in the 17th-century Dutch Republic that the global securities market began to take on its modern form. And it was in Amsterdam that the important institutional innovations such as publicly traded companies, transnational corporations, capital markets including bond markets and stock markets , central banking system, investment banking system, and investment funds mutual funds were systematically operated for the first time in history.

    While the Italian city-states produced first formal bond markets , they didn't develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fully fledged capital market: The launch of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange by the VOC in the early s, has long been recognised as the origin of 'modern' stock exchanges that specialise in creating and sustaining secondary markets in the securities such as bonds and shares of stock issued by corporations.

    The process of buying and selling these shares of stock in the VOC became the basis of the first official formal stock market in history. The Dutch pioneered stock futures , stock options , short selling , bear raids , debt-equity swaps, and other speculative instruments.

    The idea of a highly competitive and organised active mainly in Greater India but headquartered in the United Provinces of the Netherlands Dutch government-backed privately financed military-commercial enterprise was the wartime brainchild of the leading republican statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt and the States-General in the late s. In other words, the VOC was a fully functioning military-political-commercial complex in its own right rather than a pure trading company or shipping company.

    The Company was a major force behind the financial revolution [p] [] [] and economic miracle [] [] [] of the young Dutch Republic in the 17th century. During their Golden Age , the Dutch Republic or the Northern Netherlands , as the resource-poor and obscure cousins of the more urbanised Southern Netherlands , rose to become the world's leading economic and financial superpower.

    The Dutch Republic was an early industrialized nation-state in its Golden Age. The VOC's shipyards also contributed greatly to the Dutch domination of global shipbuilding and shipping industries during the s. However, in a typical multicultural society of the Netherlands home to one million citizens with roots in the former colonies Indonesia, Suriname and the Antilles , [] the VOC's history and especially its dark side has always been a potential source of controversy.

    However, it unleashed a wave of criticism, since such romantic views about the Dutch Golden Age ignores the inherent historical associations with colonialism, exploitation and violence.

    Balkenende later stressed that "it had not been his intention to refer to that at all". The VOC was a transcontinental employer and an early pioneer of outward foreign direct investment at the dawn of modern capitalism. In his book The Ecology of Money: Debt, Growth, and Sustainability , Adrian Kuzminski notes, "The Dutch, it seems, more than anyone in the West since the palmy days of ancient Rome, had more money than they knew what to do with.

    They discovered, unlike the Romans, that the best use of money was to make more money. They invested it, mostly in overseas ventures, utilising the innovation of the joint-stock company in which private investors could purchase shares, the most famous being the Dutch East India Company.

    In the early modern period, the Dutch were pioneering capitalists who raised the commercial and industrial potential of underdeveloped or undeveloped lands whose resources they exploited, whether for better or worse. For example, the native economies of pre-VOC era Taiwan [v] and South Africa were virtually undeveloped or were in almost primitive states. In many way, recorded economic history of Taiwan and South Africa began with the golden age of the VOC in the 17th century. The VOC existed for almost years from its founding in , when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a year monopoly over Dutch operations in Asia until its demise in During those two centuries between and , the VOC sent almost a million Europeans to work in the Asia trade on 4, ships, and netted for their efforts more than 2.

    By contrast, the rest of Europe combined sent only , people from to , and the fleet of the English later British East India Company , the VOC's nearest competitor, was a distant second to its total traffic with 2, ships and a mere one-fifth the tonnage of goods carried by the VOC. The VOC enjoyed huge profits from its spice monopoly through most of the 17th century. The VOC was historically a military-political-economic complex rather than a pure trading company or shipping company.

    The government-backed but privately financed company was effectively a state in its own right, or a state within another state. The Company's territories were even larger than some countries. During the Dutch Golden Age , the Dutch — using their expertise in doing business, cartography, shipbuilding, seafaring and navigation — traveled to the far corners of the world, leaving their language embedded in the names of many places.

    Dutch exploratory voyages revealed largely unknown landmasses to the civilised world and put their names on the world map. During the Golden Age of Dutch exploration c. The Dutch came to dominate the map-making and map printing industry by virtue of their own travels, trade ventures, and widespread commercial networks. Instead of using the information themselves secretly, they published it, so the maps multiplied freely. For almost years, the Dutch dominated world trade. Rangaku literally 'Dutch Learning', and by extension 'Western Learning' is a body of knowledge developed by Japan through its contacts with the Dutch enclave of Dejima , which allowed Japan to keep abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, —, because of the Tokugawa shogunate 's policy of national isolation sakoku.

    From about Rembrandt sought increasingly to introduce variation into his prints by using different sorts of paper, and printed most of his plates regularly on Japanese paper. He also used the paper for his drawings. The Japanese paper types — which was actually imported from Japan by the VOC — attracted Rembrandt with its warm, yellowish colour.

    He was turned back by the ice of the Arctic in his second attempt, so he sailed west to seek a north-west passage rather than return home. He ended up exploring the waters off the east coast of North America aboard the vlieboot Halve Maen. His first landfall was at Newfoundland and the second at Cape Cod. Hudson believed that the passage to the Pacific Ocean was between the St. Lawrence River and Chesapeake Bay , so he sailed south to the Bay then turned northward, traveling close along the shore.

    He first discovered Delaware Bay and began to sail upriver looking for the passage. This effort was foiled by sandy shoals, and the Halve Maen continued north.

    Unbeknownst to Hudson, the narrows had already been discovered in by explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano ; today, the bridge spanning them is named after him. He found the water too shallow to proceed several days later, at the site of present-day Troy, New York. Upon returning to the Netherlands, Hudson reported that he had found a fertile land and an amicable people willing to engage his crew in small-scale bartering of furs, trinkets, clothes, and small manufactured goods.

    In four voyages made between and , the area between present-day Maryland and Massachusetts was explored, surveyed, and charted by Adriaen Block , Hendrick Christiaensen , and Cornelius Jacobsen Mey. The results of these explorations, surveys, and charts made from through were consolidated in Block's map, which used the name New Netherland for the first time. In terms of world history of geography and exploration, the VOC can be credited with putting most of Australia's coast then Hollandia Nova and other names on the world map, between and In the 17th century, the VOC's navigators and explorers charted almost three-quarters of Australia's coastline, except its east coast.

    Hendrik Brouwer 's discovery of the Brouwer Route , that sailing east from the Cape of Good Hope until land was sighted and then sailing north along the west coast of Australia was a much quicker route than around the coast of the Indian Ocean, made Dutch landfalls on the west coast inevitable. The first such landfall was in , when Dirk Hartog landed at Cape Inscription on what is now known as Dirk Hartog Island , off the coast of Western Australia, and left behind an inscription on a pewter plate.

    In the Dutch captain Willem de Vlamingh landed on the island and discovered Hartog's plate. He replaced it with one of his own, which included a copy of Hartog's inscription, and took the original plate home to Amsterdam , where it is still kept in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam.

    The first known ship to have visited the area is the Leeuwin "Lioness" , a Dutch vessel that charted some of the nearby coastline in The log of the Leeuwin has been lost, so very little is known of the voyage. However, the land discovered by the Leeuwin was recorded on a map by Hessel Gerritsz: Part of Thijssen's map shows the islands St Francis and St Peter, now known collectively with their respective groups as the Nuyts Archipelago.

    This voyage defined most of the southern coast of Australia and discouraged the notion that " New Holland " as it was then known, was linked to Antarctica. In , during the same expedition, Tasman's crew discovered and charted New Zealand 's coastline. They were the first Europeans known to reach New Zealand. Tasman sketched sections of the two main islands' west coasts. Tasman called them Staten Landt , after the States General of the Netherlands , and that name appeared on his first maps of the country.

    Various claims have been made that New Zealand was reached by other non- Polynesian voyagers before Tasman, but these are not widely accepted.

    In spite of the VOC's historic successes and contributions, the Company has long been criticised for its quasi-absolute commercial monopoly, colonialism , exploitation including use of slave labour , slave trade , use of violence, environmental destruction including deforestation , and overly bureaucratic in organisational structure.

    By the time the settlement was established at the Cape in , the VOC already had a long experience of practising slavery in the East Indies.

    Jan van Riebeeck concluded within two months of the establishment of the Cape settlement that slave labor would be needed for the hardest and dirtiest work. Initially, the VOC considered enslaving men from the indigenous Khoikhoi population, but the idea was rejected on the grounds that such a policy would be both costly and dangerous.

    Most Khoikhoi had chosen not to labor for the Dutch because of low wages and harsh conditions. In the beginning, the settlers traded with the Khoikhoi but the harsh working conditions and low wages imposed by the Dutch led to a series of wars. The European population remained under during the settlement's first five years, and war against neighbors numbering more than 20, would have been foolhardy.

    Moreover, the Dutch feared that Khoikhoi people, if enslaved, could always escape into the local community, whereas foreigners would find it much more difficult to elude their "masters. Between and , a number of unsuccessful attempts were made to obtain men from the Dutch East Indies and from Mauritius.

    In , however, the VOC landed two shiploads of slaves at the Cape, one containing more than people brought from Dahomey later Benin , the second with almost people, most of them children, captured from a Portuguese slaver off the coast of Angola. Except for a few individuals, these were to be the only slaves ever brought to the Cape from West Africa. From these sources and by natural growth, the slave population increased from zero in to about 1, by During the 18th century, the slave population increased dramatically to 16, by After the slave trade was initiated, all of the slaves imported into the Cape until the British stopped the trade in were from East Africa, Mozambique, Madagascar, and South and Southeast Asia.

    Large numbers were brought from India, Ceylon , and the Indonesian archipelago. Prisoners from other countries in the VOC's empire were also enslaved. The slave population, which exceeded that of the European settlers until the first quarter of the nineteenth century, was overwhelmingly male and was thus dependent on constant imports of new slaves to maintain and to augment its size. By the s the Cape settlement was importing slaves from India, Malaya Malaysia , and Madagascar to work on the farms.

    In Doman, a Khoikhoi who had worked as a translator for the Dutch and had even traveled to Java, led an armed attempt to expel the Dutch from the Cape peninsula. The attempt was a failure, although warfare dragged on until an inconclusive peace was established a year later.

    During the following decade, pressure on the Khoikhoi grew as more of the Dutch became free burghers, expanded their landholdings, and sought pastureland for their growing herds. War broke out again in and continued until , when Khoikhoi resistance was destroyed by a combination of superior European weapons and Dutch manipulation of divisions among the local people. Thereafter, Khoikhoi society in the western Cape disintegrated. Some people found jobs as shepherds on European farms; others rejected foreign rule and moved away from the Cape.

    The final blow for most came in when a Dutch ship brought smallpox to the Cape. Hitherto unknown locally, the disease ravaged the remaining Khoikhoi, killing 90 percent of the population. The approximately 3, Europeans and slaves at the Cape in had increased by the end of the century to nearly 20, Europeans, and approximately 25, slaves.

    The VOC's operations trading posts and colonies produced not only warehouses packed with spices, coffee, tea, textiles, porcelain and silk, but also shiploads of documents. The Dutch East India Company VOC , as a historical transcontinental company-state , is one of the best expertly researched business enterprises in history.

    For almost years of the Company's existence — , the VOC had effectively transformed itself from a corporate entity into a state, an empire, or even a world in its own right. VOC World studies often included within a broader field of early-modern Dutch global world studies is an international multidisciplinary field focused on social, cultural, religious, scientific, technological, economic, financial, business, maritime, military, political, legal, diplomatic activities, organization and administration of the VOC and its colourful world.

    Its lengthy history, widespread enterprises, and the survival of massive amounts of documentation — literally 1, meters of essays pertaining to the VOC may be found in the National Archives in The Hague, and many more documents are scattered in archives throughout Asia and in South Africa — have stimulated many works on economic and social history.

    Important publications have also appeared on the trade, shipping, institutional organization, and administration of the VOC. Much has also been learned about the VOC and Dutch colonial societies. In contrast, the role of the VOC in cultural history and especially in the history of visual and material culture has not yet attracted comparable interest. To be sure, journals and other travel accounts some even with illustrations by soldiers, shippers, and VOC officials among others have been utilized as sources.

    The publication of the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum by Abraham Ortelius in marked the official beginning of the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography c. In the Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery c.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see East India Company disambiguation. This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. You can assist by editing it. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia.

    See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. Amsterdam global Batavia overseas. Colonial Indian companies , and East Indiaman. Spice trade and Cape Route. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

    Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. It was in Batavia present-day Jakarta on the island of Java that the VOC established its administrative center , as the second headquarters, with a Governor-General in charge from onwards. The company also had important operations elsewhere.

    This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. List of Dutch East India Company trading posts and settlements. Dutch East India Company in Indonesia. VOC Opperhoofden in Japan. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. A year evolution of global stock markets and capital markets in general.

    The formal stock market in its modern sense — as one of the potent mechanisms of modern capitalism [] [] [] — was a pioneering innovation by the VOC managers and shareholders in the early 17th century. Economic history of the Dutch Republic , Financial history of the Dutch Republic , Dutch Financial Revolution , Finance capitalism , Corporate finance , Financial system , Global financial system , History of financial markets , Capital markets , Financial markets , History of capitalism , and Corporate globalization.

    Economic history of the Netherlands — , Dutch economic miracle c. Dodo , Criticism of capitalism , Criticisms of globalization , and Corporate crime. History of slavery , Slavery in South Africa , and Meermin slave mutiny.

    List of works about the Dutch East India Company. For the full list of places explored, mapped, and named by people of the VOC, see List of place names of Dutch origin. Australian places with Dutch names. Former properties of the Dutch East India Company. A public company can be listed company publicly listed company or unlisted company unlisted public company. Before the VOC era, in terms of historical role, a bourse was not exactly a stock exchange in its modern sense.

    With the establishment of the Dutch East India Company VOC and the rise of Dutch capital markets in the early s, the 'old' bourse a place to trade commodities , municipal and government bonds found a new purpose — a formal exchange that specialize in creating and sustaining secondary markets in the securities such as bonds and shares of stock issued by corporations — or a modern stock exchange as we know it today.

    The term was used most prominently in Nigel Worden ed. The webbed character of the VOC World deserves further enquiry. This world should not be conceived as a firmly limited space of interaction or as exclusively 'Dutch'.

    Both the linkages between various VOC settlements as well as those to the worlds beyond should be taken into account, as the VOC created patterns of transport and safe spaces that facilitated the exchange of knowledge, goods and people.

    All kinds of persons and groups participated in or made use of the VOC World, forming their own webs. One example are knowledge networks, which have become a topic of research only fairly recently. Another strong case are the networks of exiles as described by Kerry Ward in her aptly titled Networks of Empire While traditional multinational corporations are national companies with foreign subsidiaries, transnational corporations spread out their operations in many countries sustaining high levels of local responsiveness.

    An example of a transnational corporation is the Royal Dutch Shell corporation whose headquarters may be in The Hague Netherlands but its registered office and main executive body is headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

    While the VOC established its main administrative center , as the second headquarters, in Batavia Dutch East Indies, — , the company's global headquarters was in Amsterdam Dutch Republic. Also, the company had important operations elsewhere. The organisational structures and corporate practices of the VOC were closely paralleled by the English East India Company and served as the direct model for all of the later mercantile trading companies of the second cycle , including those of Italy, France, Portugal, Denmark, and Brandenburg-Prussia.

    Within the Communist countries , the spectrum of socialism ranged from the quasi-market, quasi- syndicalist system of Yugoslavia to the centralized totalitarianism of neighboring Albania.

    One time I asked Professor von Mises , the great expert on the economics of socialism, at what point on this spectrum of statism would he designate a country as "socialist" or not. At that time, I wasn't sure that any definite criterion existed to make that sort of clear-cut judgment. And so I was pleasantly surprised at the clarity and decisiveness of Mises's answer. For it means that there is a functioning market in the exchange of private titles to the means of production.

    There can be no genuine private ownership of capital without a stock market: These early joint-stock firms, however, possessed only temporary charters from the government, in some cases for one voyage only. One example was the Muscovy Company , chartered in England in for trade with Russia; another, chartered the same year, was a company with the intriguing title Guinea Adventurers.

    The Dutch East India Company was the first joint-stock company to have a permanent charter. Financial innovations such as maritime insurance, retirement pensions, annuities, futures and options, transnational securities listings, mutual funds and modern investment banking had their genesis in 17th and 18th century Amsterdam.

    Laten we blij zijn met elkaar. Over grenzen heen kijken! In Van Oldenbarnevelt started pushing for a consolidation because the continuing competition threatened to compromise the Dutch fight against Spain and Portugal in Asia Den Heijer , The companies of Middelburg and Veere followed the Amsterdam example and merged into one Verenigde Zeeuwse Compagnie in The idea for a merger between the all companies, first considered in , then reappeared, given new momentum by the emergence of the East India Company in Britain.

    Negotiations between the Dutch companies took a long time because of conflicting demands. Firstly, the Estates General wanted the merger to secure a strong Dutch presence in Asia. By attacking the Luso-Hispanic overseas empire , a large, united company would also help in the ongoing war against the Spanish Habsburgs. Initially Van Oldenbarnevelt thought of no more than two or three manned strongholds Van Deventer , , but the Estates General wanted an offensive Van Brakel , 20— These can be thought of as creating in a short period of time all the key components of a modern financial system.

    The first was the Dutch Republic four centuries ago. The total capital of the Republic was probably more important than that of all the rest of Europe put together. In a short time it became the most advanced shipbuilding nation in the world and developed large naval, fishing, and merchant fleets. The Netherlands introduced many financial innovations that made it a major economic force—and Amsterdam became the world center for international finance.

    Its manufacturing towns grew so quickly that by the middle of the century the Netherlands had supplanted France as the leading industrial nation of the world. It was highly mechanized and used many labor-saving devices — wind-powered sawmills, powered feeders for saw, block and tackles, great cranes to move heavy timbers — all of which increased productivity. Let us say, 'It is possible again in The Netherlands! Thompson noted, "The most striking fact about the historical knowledge of Formosa is the lack of it in Chinese records.

    It is truly astonishing that this very large island, so close to the mainland that on exceptionally clear days it may be made out from certain places on the Fukien coast with the unaided eye, should have remained virtually beyond the ken of Chinese writers down until late Ming times seventeenth century. Dutch maritime activities are normally described as superior to those of other nations and proofs of the Dutch society's ability to combine technology, entrepreneurship and low transaction costs.

    In the naval histories of these countries, the Dutch navy is treated with respect, admiration or envy. In , it won one of the most decisive victories ever achieved in a major fleet contest against Spain-Portugal in the Channel , and in —59 it saved Denmark from possible extinction as an independent state by Sweden. In , it attacked the English fleet in its bases , in —73 it waged a very successful defensive campaign against the combined fleets of France and England [the two battles of Schooneveld and Texel ], and in it achieved an invasion of England in an excellently administrated surprise mobilisation of a major fleet.

    In a European perspective, the Dutch navy is a strong candidate for the position as the most successful naval organisation of the seventeenth century. The shipbuilding district of Zaandam, in Holland , was one of the world's earliest known heavily industrialized areas. Palgrave Macmillan, , pp. According to Willem Usselincx , a large merchant well versed in the intercontinental trade, the VOC charter was drafted by bewindhebbers bent on defending their own interests and the States-General had allowed that to pass so as to achieve the desired merger Van Rees , An agreement was finally reached on March 20th, , after which the Estates General issued a charter granting a monopoly on the Asian trade for 21 years Gaastra , 21— Routledge, , pp.

    Retrieved 22 February International Journal of Maritime History 20 1: Retrieved 18 May The named reference Shih was invoked but never defined see the help page. The named reference Tseng was invoked but never defined see the help page. The named reference Estreicher was invoked but never defined see the help page. The named reference Williams was invoked but never defined see the help page. Creating Order in Economic and Social Life.

    Retrieved 20 December Business History 53 3: Oxford University Press, , pp. The potential of repositioning the financial 'meta-economy,'. As Catherine Macaulay notes, " The EIC's bond format, used successfully for over 50 years, has been criticised for preventing capital accumulation as bonds were liquidated quickly after each voyage and a new company effectively established for the next expedition.

    The evolution of company bonds, adapting arrangements to suit new goals, was cut short when the EIC adopted the VOC share model in Retrieved 11 January Mergers, Acquisitions and Global Empires: Retrieved 8 August Korea, the Republic of Samsung". Retrieved 19 September London Review of Books vol. Retrieved 15 June SAGE Publications, , p.

    A theoretical explanation based on the objective of the firm and limited liability '. Discussion Paper Series No. Tetsuya Shinkai et al. The British East India Company was even more decentralized, however, and acted less as a trading company than as a guild. It allowed each of its members to trade on his account, owning only the ships in common with other members. Bernstein also describes the behavior of the employees of the British East India Company, "the employee of the East India Company treated its ships as their own, transporting large amounts of trade goods for their accounts to and from Asia.

    Perambulations in a Prospective Field,'. Low Countries Historical Review 1: Retrieved 23 May Secrets of the Dead. Retrieved 12 November The Age of European Discovery, — Archived from the original on 7 February Retrieved 5 July The VOC charter, the legal foundation of the enterprise was revoked.

    Although the state of war in Europe permitted no drastic changes in course as far as shipping and trade to Asia were concerned it spelled the end of the company Balk, L. The logo that lasted". Retrieved 22 January Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 2 April Retrieved 21 August A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.

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    The Boundaries of Markets and Modern Capitalism. University of Chicago Press, , pp. The World's Oldest Share. Guinness World Records Limited Archived from the original on 8 August The Declaration of Dependence: Dividends in the Twenty-First Century.

    Retrieved 28 August For example, of the largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations while only 49 are countries, based on a comparison of corporate sales and country GDPs. In this era of globalization, marginalized people are becoming especially angry at the motives of multinational corporations, and corporate-led globalization is being met with increasing protest and resistance.

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    Dutch East India Company

    The Dutch East India Company was an early megacorporation founded by a The Company has been often labelled a trading company (i.e. a company of the VOC was the wartime brainchild of leading Dutch republican statesman Johan . were lost before the expedition made it back to the Netherlands the following. Enron Corporation was an American energy, commodities, and services company based in It was reorganized in as the main subsidiary of a holding company, . Investors quickly bought Enron stock following the announcement "as they . As was later discovered, many of Enron's recorded assets and profits were. LinkedIn Company Follow is a tool job seekers can use for researching employers and discovering contacts at organizations where they might.

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